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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
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  3. Abstract Paper-based electrochemical sensors provide the opportunity for low-cost, portable and environmentally friendly single-use chemical analysis and there are various reports of surface-functionalized paper electrodes. Here we report a composite paper electrode that is fabricated through designed papermaking using cellulose, carbon fibers (CF), and graphene oxide (GO). The composite paper has well-controlled structure, stable, and repeatable properties, and offers the electrocatalytic activities for sensitive and selective chemical detection. We demonstrate that this CF/GO/cellulose composite paper can be reduced electrochemically using relatively mild conditions and this GO reduction confers electrocatalytic properties to the composite paper. Finally, we demonstrate that this composite paper offers sensing performance (sensitivity and selectivity) comparable to, or better than, paper-based sensors prepared by small-batch surface-modification (e.g., printing) methods. We envision this coupling of industrialized papermaking technologies with interfacial engineering and electrochemical reduction can provide a platform for single-use and portable chemical detection for a wide range of applications.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Abstract

    Mirrors are ubiquitous in optics and are used to control the propagation of optical signals in space. Here we propose and demonstrate frequency domain mirrors that provide reflections of the optical energy in a frequency synthetic dimension, using electro-optic modulation. First, we theoretically explore the concept of frequency mirrors with the investigation of propagation loss, and reflectivity in the frequency domain. Next, we explore the mirror formed through polarization mode-splitting in a thin-film lithium niobate micro-resonator. By exciting the Bloch waves of the synthetic frequency crystal with different wave vectors, we show various states formed by the interference between forward propagating and reflected waves. Finally, we expand on this idea, and generate tunable frequency mirrors as well as demonstrate trapped states formed by these mirrors using coupled lithium niobate micro-resonators. The ability to control the flow of light in the frequency domain could enable a wide range of applications, including the study of random walks, boson sampling, frequency comb sources, optical computation, and topological photonics. Furthermore, demonstration of optical elements such as cavities, lasers, and photonic crystals in the frequency domain, may be possible.

  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
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  7. Vast volumes of data are produced by today’s scientific simulations and advanced instruments. These data cannot be stored and transferred efficiently because of limited I/O bandwidth, network speed, and storage capacity. Error-bounded lossy compression can be an effective method for addressing these issues: not only can it significantly reduce data size, but it can also control the data distortion based on user-defined error bounds. In practice, many scientific applications have specific requirements or constraints for lossy compression, in order to guarantee that the reconstructed data are valid for post hoc analysis. For example, some datasets contain irrelevant data that should be isolated in particular and users often have intuition regarding value ranges, geospatial regions, and other data subsets that are crucial for subsequent analysis. Existing state-of-the-art error-bounded lossy compressors, however, do not consider these constraints during compression, resulting in inferior compression ratios with respect to user’s post hoc analysis, due to the fact that the data itself provides little or no value for post hoc analysis. In this work we address this issue by proposing an optimized framework that can preserve diverse constraints during the error-bounded lossy compression, e.g., cleaning the irrelevant data, efficiently preserving different precision for multiple valuemore »intervals, and allowing users to set diverse precision over both regular and irregular regions. We perform our evaluation on a supercomputer with up to 2,100 cores. Experiments with six real-world applications show that our proposed diverse constraints based error-bounded lossy compressor can obtain a higher visual quality or data fidelity on reconstructed data with the same or even higher compression ratios compared with the traditional state-of-the-art compressor SZ. Our experiments also demonstrate very good scalability in compression performance compared with the I/O throughput of the parallel file system.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
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  10. The development of multifunctional nanomaterials has received growing research interest, thanks to its ability to combine multiple properties for severing highly demanding purposes. In this work, holmium oxide nanoparticles are synthesized and characterized by various tools including XRD, XPS, and TEM. These nanoparticles are found to emit near-infrared fluorescence (800–1100 nm) under a 785 nm excitation source. Imaging of the animal tissues was demonstrated, and the maximum imaging depth was found to be 2.2 cm. The synthesized nanoparticles also show the capability of facilitating dye (fluorescein sodium salt and rhodamine 6G) degradation under white light irradiation. The synthesized holmium oxide nanoparticles are envisioned to be useful for near-infrared tissue imaging and dye-degradation.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023