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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Abstract We select 48 multiflare gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) (including 137 flares) from the Swift/XRT database and estimate the spectral lag with the discrete correlation function. It is found that 89.8% of the flares have positive lags and only 9.5% of the flares show negative lags when fluctuations are taken into account. The median lag of the multiflares (2.75 s) is much greater than that of GRB pulses (0.18 s), which can be explained by the fact that we confirm that multiflare GRBs and multipulse GRBs have similar positive lag–duration correlations. We investigate the origin of the lags by checking themore »E peak evolution with the two brightest bursts and find the leading models cannot explain all of the multiflare lags and there may be other physical mechanisms. All of the results above reveal that X-ray flares have the same properties as GRB pulses, which further supports the observation that X-ray flares and GRB prompt-emission pulses have the same physical origin.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 16, 2022