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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
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  3. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) serves as an important gaseous signaling molecule that is involved in intra- and intercellular signal transduction in plant–environment interactions. In plants, H2S is formed in sulfate/cysteine reduction pathways. The activation of endogenous H2S and its exogenous application has been found to be highly effective in ameliorating a wide variety of stress conditions in plants. The H2S interferes with the cellular redox regulatory network and prevents the degradation of proteins from oxidative stress via post-translational modifications (PTMs). H2S-mediated persulfidation allows the rapid response of proteins in signaling networks to environmental stimuli. In addition, regulatory crosstalk of H2S with other gaseous signals and plant growth regulators enable the activation of multiple signaling cascades that drive cellular adaptation. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of H2S-induced cellular adjustments and the interactions between H2S and various signaling pathways in plants, emphasizing the recent progress in our understanding of the effects of H2S on the PTMs of proteins. We also discuss future directions that would advance our understanding of H2S interactions to ultimately mitigate the impacts of environmental stresses in the plants. 
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  4. Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant defense signal that mediates local and systemic immune responses against pathogen invasion. However, the underlying mechanism of SA-mediated defense is very complex due to the involvement of various positive and negative regulators to fine-tune its signaling in diverse pathosystems. Upon pathogen infections, elevated level of SA promotes massive transcriptional reprogramming in which Non-expresser of PR genes 1 (NPR1) acts as a central hub and transcriptional coactivator in defense responses. Recent findings show that Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 (EDS1) also functions as a transcriptional coactivator and stimulates the expression of PR1 in the presence of NPR1 and SA. Furthermore, EDS1 stabilizes NPR1 protein level, while NPR1 sustains EDS1 expression during pathogenic infection. The interaction of NPR1 and EDS1 coactivators initiates transcriptional reprogramming by recruiting cyclin-dependent kinase 8 in the Mediator complex to control immune responses. In this review, we highlight the recent breakthroughs that considerably advance our understanding on how transcriptional coactivators interact with their functional partners to trigger distinct pathways to facilitate immune responses, and how SA accumulation induces dynamic changes in NPR1 structure for transcriptional reprogramming. In addition, the functions of different Mediator subunits in SA-mediated plant immunity are also discussed in light of recent discoveries. Taken together, the available evidence suggests that transcriptional coactivators are essential and potent regulators of plant defense pathways and play crucial roles in coordinating plant immune responses during plant–pathogen interactions. 
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