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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  2. The exquisite structure-function correlations observed in filamentous protein assemblies provide a paradigm for the design of synthetic peptide-based nanomaterials. However, the plasticity of quaternary structure in sequence-space and the lability of helical symmetry present significant challenges to the de novo design and structural analysis of such filaments. Here, we describe a rational approach to design self-assembling peptide nanotubes based on controlling lateral interactions between protofilaments having an unusual cross-α supramolecular architecture. Near-atomic resolution cryo-EM structural analysis of seven designed nanotubes provides insight into the designability of interfaces within these synthetic peptide assemblies and identifies a non-native structural interaction based onmore »a pair of arginine residues. This arginine clasp motif can robustly mediate cohesive interactions between protofilaments within the cross-α nanotubes. The structure of the resultant assemblies can be controlled through the sequence and length of the peptide subunits, which generates synthetic peptide filaments of similar dimensions to flagella and pili.« less
  3. ABSTRACT We present the results of a new, deeper, and complete search for high-redshift 6.5 < z < 9.3 quasars over 977 deg2 of the VISTA Kilo-Degree Infrared Galaxy (VIKING) survey. This exploits a new list-driven data set providing photometry in all bands Z, Y, J, H, Ks, for all sources detected by VIKING in J. We use the Bayesian model comparison (BMC) selection method of Mortlock et al., producing a ranked list of just 21 candidates. The sources ranked 1, 2, 3, and 5 are the four known z > 6.5 quasars in this field. Additional observations of the other 17more »candidates, primarily DESI Legacy Survey photometry and ESO FORS2 spectroscopy, confirm that none is a quasar. This is the first complete sample from the VIKING survey, and we provide the computed selection function. We include a detailed comparison of the BMC method against two other selection methods: colour cuts and minimum-χ2 SED fitting. We find that: (i) BMC produces eight times fewer false positives than colour cuts, while also reaching 0.3 mag deeper, (ii) the minimum-χ2 SED-fitting method is extremely efficient but reaches 0.7 mag less deep than the BMC method, and selects only one of the four known quasars. We show that BMC candidates, rejected because their photometric SEDs have high χ2 values, include bright examples of galaxies with very strong [O iii] λλ4959,5007 emission in the Y band, identified in fainter surveys by Matsuoka et al. This is a potential contaminant population in Euclid searches for faint z > 7 quasars, not previously accounted for, and that requires better characterization.« less
  4. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems have been adopted to create comfortable, healthy and safe indoor environments. In the control loop, the technical feature of the human demand-oriented supply can help operate HVAC effectively. Among many technical options, real time monitoring based on feedback signals from end users has been frequently reported as a critical technology to confirm optimizing building performance. Recent studies have incorporated human thermal physiologysignals and thermal comfort/discomfort status as real-time feedback signals. A series of human subject experiments used to be conducted by primarily adopting subjective questionnaire surveys in a lab-setting study, which is limited inmore »the application for reality. With the help of advanced technologies, physiological signals have been detected, measured and processed by using multiple technical formats, such as wearable sensors. Nevertheless, they mostly require physical contacts with the skin surface in spite of the small physical dimension and compatibility with other wearable accessories, such as goggles, and intelligent bracelets. Most recently, a low cost small infrared camera has been adopted for monitoring human facial images, which could detect the facial skin temperature and blood perfusion in a contactless way. Also, according to latest pilot studies, a conventional digital camera can generate infrared images with the help of new methods, such as the Euler video magnification technology. Human thermal comfort/discomfort poses can also be detected by video methods without contacting human bodies and be analyzed by the skeleton keypoints model. In this review, new sensing technologies were summarized, their cons and pros were discussed, and extended applications for the demand-oriented ventilation were also reviewed as potential development and applications.« less