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  1. Abstract Histopathology is widely used to analyze clinical biopsy specimens and tissues from pre-clinical models of a variety of musculoskeletal conditions. Histological assessment relies on scoring systems that require expertise, time, and resources, which can lead to an analysis bottleneck. Recent advancements in digital imaging and image processing provide an opportunity to automate histological analyses by implementing advanced statistical models such as machine learning and deep learning, which would greatly benefit the musculoskeletal field. This review provides a high-level overview of machine learning applications, a general pipeline of tissue collection to model selection, and highlights the development of image analysis methods, including some machine learning applications, to solve musculoskeletal problems. We discuss the optimization steps for tissue processing, sectioning, staining, and imaging that are critical for the successful generalizability of an automated image analysis model. We also commenting on the considerations that should be taken into account during model selection and the considerable advances in the field of computer vision outside of histopathology, which can be leveraged for image analysis. Finally, we provide a historic perspective of the previously used histopathological image analysis applications for musculoskeletal diseases, and we contrast it with the advantages of implementing state-of-the-art computational pathology approaches.more »While some deep learning approaches have been used, there is a significant opportunity to expand the use of such approaches to solve musculoskeletal problems.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. Chen, Chi-Hua (Ed.)
    Mobile sensing data processed using machine learning models can passively and remotely assess mental health symptoms from the context of patients’ lives. Prior work has trained models using data from single longitudinal studies, collected from demographically homogeneous populations, over short time periods, using a single data collection platform or mobile application. The generalizability of model performance across studies has not been assessed. This study presents a first analysis to understand if models trained using combined longitudinal study data to predict mental health symptoms generalize across current publicly available data. We combined data from the CrossCheck (individuals living with schizophrenia) and StudentLife (university students) studies. In addition to assessing generalizability, we explored if personalizing models to align mobile sensing data, and oversampling less-represented severe symptoms, improved model performance. Leave-one-subject-out cross-validation (LOSO-CV) results were reported. Two symptoms (sleep quality and stress) had similar question-response structures across studies and were used as outcomes to explore cross-dataset prediction. Models trained with combined data were more likely to be predictive (significant improvement over predicting training data mean) than models trained with single-study data. Expected model performance improved if the distance between training and validation feature distributions decreased using combined versus single-study data. Personalization aligned eachmore »LOSO-CV participant with training data, but only improved predicting CrossCheck stress. Oversampling significantly improved severe symptom classification sensitivity and positive predictive value, but decreased model specificity. Taken together, these results show that machine learning models trained on combined longitudinal study data may generalize across heterogeneous datasets. We encourage researchers to disseminate collected de-identified mobile sensing and mental health symptom data, and further standardize data types collected across studies to enable better assessment of model generalizability.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 27, 2023
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  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  8. Digital biomarkers of mental health, created using data extracted from everyday technologies including smartphones, wearable devices, social media and computer interactions, have the opportunity to revolutionise mental health diagnosis and treatment by providing near-continuous unobtrusive and remote measures of behaviours associated with mental health symptoms. Machine learning models process data traces from these technologies to identify digital biomarkers. In this editorial, we caution clinicians against using digital biomarkers in practice until models are assessed for equitable predictions (‘model equity’) across demographically diverse patients at scale, behaviours over time, and data types extracted from different devices and platforms. We posit that it will be difficult for any individual clinic or large-scale study to assess and ensure model equity and alternatively call for the creation of a repository of open de-identified data for digital biomarker development.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  9. Controlled table-to-text generation seeks to generate natural language descriptions for highlighted subparts of a table. Previous SOTA systems still employ a sequence-to-sequence generation method, which merely captures the table as a linear structure and is brittle when table layouts change. We seek to go beyond this paradigm by (1) effectively expressing the relations of content pieces in the table, and (2) making our model robust to content-invariant structural transformations. Accordingly, we propose an equivariance learning framework, which encodes tables with a structure-aware self-attention mechanism. This prunes the full self-attention structure into an order-invariant graph attention that captures the connected graph structure of cells belonging to the same row or column, and it differentiates between relevant cells and irrelevant cells from the structural perspective. Our framework also modifies the positional encoding mechanism to preserve the relative position of tokens in the same cell but enforce position invariance among different cells. Our technology is free to be plugged into existing table-to-text generation models, and has improved T5-based models to offer better performance on ToTTo and HiTab. Moreover, on a harder version of ToTTo, we preserve promising performance, while previous SOTA systems, even with transformation-based data augmentation, have seen significant performance drops.