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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 13, 2022
  2. Optimization-based k-space sampling pattern design often involves the Jacobian matrix of non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) operations. Previous works relying on auto-differentiation can be time-consuming and less accurate. This work proposes an approximation method using the relationship between exact non-uniform DFT (NDFT) and NUFFT, demonstrating improved results for the sampling pattern optimization problem.
  3. The fluid dynamics of a bubble collapsing near an elastic or viscoelastic material is coupled with the mechanical response of the material. We apply a multiphase fluid–solid coupled computational model to simulate the collapse of an air bubble in water induced by an ultrasound shock wave, near different types of materials including metals (e.g. aluminium), polymers (e.g. polyurea), minerals (e.g. gypsum), glass and foams. We characterize the two-way fluid–material interaction by examining the fluid pressure and velocity fields, the time history of bubble shape and volume and the maximum tensile and shear stresses produced in the material. We show thatmore »the ratio of the longitudinal acoustic impedance of the material compared to that of the ambient fluid, $Z/Z_0$ , plays a significant role. When $Z/Z_0<1$ , the material reflects the compressive front of the incident shock into a tensile wave. The reflected tensile wave impinges on the bubble and decelerates its collapse. As a result, the collapse produces a liquid jet, but not necessarily a shock wave. When $Z/Z_0>1$ , the reflected wave is compressive and accelerates the bubble's collapse, leading to the emission of a shock wave whose amplitude increases linearly with $\log (Z/Z_0)$ , and can be much higher than the amplitude of the incident shock. The reflection of this emitted shock wave impinges on the bubble during its rebound. It reduces the speed of the bubble's rebound and the velocity of the liquid jet. Furthermore, we show that, for a set of materials with $Z/Z_0\in [0.04, 10.8]$ , the effect of acoustic impedance on the bubble's collapse time and minimum volume can be captured using phenomenological models constructed based on the solution of Rayleigh–Plesset equation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 25, 2022
  4. The proposed approach, BJORK, provides a robust and generalizable workflow to jointly optimize non-Cartesian sampling patters and a physics-informed reconstruction. Several approaches, including re-parameterization of trajectories, multi-level optimization, and non-Cartesian unrolled neural networks, are introduced to improve training effect and avoid sub-optimal local minima. The invivo experiments show that the networks and trajectories learned on simulation dataset are transferable to the real acquisition even with different parameter-weighted MRI contrasts and noise-levels, and demonstrate improved image quality compared with previous learning-based and model-based trajectory optimization methods.
  5. As promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries, rechargeable anion-shuttle batteries (ASBs) with anions as charge carriers stand out because of their low cost, long cyclic lifetime, and/or high energy density. In this review, we provide for the first time, comprehensive insights into the anion shuttling mechanisms of ASBs, including anion-based rocking-chair batteries (ARBs), dual-ion batteries (DIBs), including insertion-type, conversion-type, and conversion- insertion-type, and reverse dual-ion batteries (RDIBs). Thereafter, we review the latest progresses and challenges regarding electrode materials and electrolytes for ASBs. In addition, we summarize the existing dilemmas of ASBs and outline the perspective of ASB technology for future gridmore »storage.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 5, 2022
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 29, 2022
  7. Abstract For the first time, electrical conduction mechanisms in the disordered material system is experimentally studied for p-type amorphous germanium (a-Ge) used for high-purity Ge detector contacts. The localization length and the hopping parameters in a-Ge are determined using the surface leakage current measured from three high-purity planar Ge detectors. The temperature dependent hopping distance and hopping energy are obtained for a-Ge fabricated as the electrical contact materials for high-purity Ge planar detectors. As a result, we find that the hopping energy in a-Ge increases as temperature increases while the hopping distance in a-Ge decreases as temperature increases. The localizationmore »length of a-Ge is on the order of $$2.13^{-0.05}_{+0.07}\mathrm{{A}}^\circ $$ 2 . 13 + 0.07 - 0.05 A ∘ to $$5.07^{-0.83}_{+2.58}\mathrm{{A}}^\circ $$ 5 . 07 + 2.58 - 0.83 A ∘ , depending on the density of states near the Fermi energy level within bandgap. Using these parameters, we predict that the surface leakage current from a Ge detector with a-Ge contacts can be much smaller than one yocto amp (yA) at helium temperature, suitable for rare-event physics searches.« less