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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  2. Artificial Intelligence (AI) brings advancements to support pathologists in navigating high-resolution tumor images to search for pathology patterns of interest. However, existing AI-assisted tools have not realized the promised potential due to a lack of insight into pathology and HCI considerations for pathologists’ navigation workflows in practice. We first conducted a formative study with six medical professionals in pathology to capture their navigation strategies. By incorporating our observations along with the pathologists’ domain knowledge, we designed NaviPath — a human-AI collaborative navigation system. An evaluation study with 15 medical professionals in pathology indicated that: (i) compared to the manual navigation, participants saw more than twice the number of pathological patterns in unit time with NaviPath, and (ii) participants achieved higher precision and recall against the AI and the manual navigation on average. Further qualitative analysis revealed that participants’ navigation was more consistent with NaviPath, which can improve the examination quality.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  3. Abstract The coupling between superconductors and oscillation cycles of light pulses, i.e., lightwave engineering, is an emerging control concept for superconducting quantum electronics. Although progress has been made towards terahertz-driven superconductivity and supercurrents, the interactions able to drive non-equilibrium pairing are still poorly understood, partially due to the lack of measurements of high-order correlation functions. In particular, the sensing of exotic collective modes that would uniquely characterize light-driven superconducting coherence, in a way analogous to the Meissner effect, is very challenging but much needed. Here we report the discovery of parametrically driven superconductivity by light-induced order-parameter collective oscillations in iron-based superconductors. The time-periodic relative phase dynamics between the coupled electron and hole bands drives the transition to a distinct parametric superconducting state out-of-equalibrium. This light-induced emergent coherence is characterized by a unique phase–amplitude collective mode with Floquet-like sidebands at twice the Higgs frequency. We measure non-perturbative, high-order correlations of this parametrically driven superconductivity by separating the terahertz-frequency multidimensional coherent spectra into pump–probe, Higgs mode and bi-Higgs frequency sideband peaks. We find that the higher-order bi-Higgs sidebands dominate above the critical field, which indicates the breakdown of susceptibility perturbative expansion in this parametric quantum matter.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 5, 2023
  4. Yamashita, Y. ; Kano, M. (Ed.)
    Membrane characterization provides essential information for the scale-up, design, and optimization of new separation systems. We recently proposed the diafiltration apparatus for high-throughput analysis (DATA), which enables a 5-times reduction in the time, energy, and the number of experiments necessary to characterize membrane transport properties. This paper applies formal model-based design of experiments (MBDoE) techniques to further analyse and optimize DATA. For example, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Fisher Information Matrix (FIM) show dynamic diafiltration experiments improve parameter identifiability by 3 orders of magnitude compared to traditional filtration experiments. Moreover, continuous retentate conductivity measurements in DATA improve A-, D-, E-, and ME-optimal MBDoE criteria by between 6 % and 32 %. Using these criteria, we identify pressure and initial concentrations conditions that maximize parameter precision and remove correlations.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 30, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  7. Rotating machines, such as pumps and compressors, are critical components in refineries and chemical plants used to transport fluids between processing units. Bearings are often the critical parts of rotating machinery, and their failure could result in economic loss and/or safety issues. Therefore, estimation of the remaining useful life (RUL) of a bearing plays an important role in reducing production losses and avoiding machine damage. Because bearing failure mechanisms tend to be complex and stochastic, data-driven RUL estimation approaches have found more applications. This work proposes a novel RUL estimation method based on systematic feature engineering and extreme learning machine (ELM). The PRONOSTIA dataset is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
  8. Unlike traditional structural materials, soft solids can often sustain very large deformation before failure, and many exhibit nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. Modeling nonlinear viscoelasticity is a challenging problem for a number of reasons. In particular, a large number of material parameters are needed to capture material response and validation of models can be hindered by limited amounts of experimental data available. We have developed a Gaussian Process (GP) approach to determine the material parameters of a constitutive model describing the mechanical behavior of a soft, viscoelastic PVA hydrogel. A large number of stress histories generated by the constitutive model constitute the training sets. The low-rank representations of stress histories by Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) are taken to be random variables which can be modeled via Gaussian Processes with respect to the material parameters of the constitutive model. We obtain optimal material parameters by minimizing an objective function over the input set. We find that there are many good sets of parameters. Further the process reveals relationships between the model parameters. Results so far show that GP has great potential in fitting constitutive models.