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  1. Despite the trend of incorporating heterogeneity and specialization in hardware, the development of heterogeneous applications is limited to a handful of engineers with deep hardware expertise. We propose HeteroGen that takes C/C++ code as input and automatically generates an HLS version with test behavior preservation and better performance. Key to the success of HeteroGen is adapting the idea of search-based program repair to the heterogeneous computing domain, while addressing two technical challenges. First, the turn-around time of HLS compilation and simulation is much longer than the usual C/C++ compilation and execution time; therefore, HeteroGen applies pattern-oriented program edits guided by common fix patterns and their dependences. Second, behavior and performance checking requires testing, but test cases are often unavailable. Thus, HeteroGen auto-generates test inputs suitable for checking C to HLS-C conversion errors, while providing high branch coverage for the original C code. An evaluation of HeteroGen shows that it produces an HLS-compatible version for nine out of ten real-world heterogeneous applications fully automatically, applying up to 438 lines of edits to produce an HLS version 1.63x faster than the original version. 
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  2. Over the past few years, several quantum software stacks (QSS) have been developed in response to rapid hardware advances in quantum computing. A QSS includes a quantum programming language, an optimizing compiler that translates a quantum algorithm written in a high-level language into quantum gate instructions, a quantum simulator that emulates these instructions on a classical device, and a software controller that sends analog signals to a very expensive quantum hardware based on quantum circuits. In comparison to traditional compilers and architecture simulators, QSSes are difficult to tests due to the probabilistic nature of results, the lack of clear hardware specifications, and quantum programming complexity. This work devises a novel differential testing approach for QSSes, named QDIFF with three major innovations: (1) We generate input programs to be tested via semantics-preserving, source to source transformation to explore program variants. (2) We speed up differential testing by filtering out quantum circuits that are not worthwhile to execute on quantum hardware by analyzing static characteristics such as a circuit depth, 2-gate operations, gate error rates, and T1 relaxation time. (3) We design an extensible equivalence checking mechanism via distribution comparison functions such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and cross entropy. We evaluate QDiff with three widely-used open source QSSes: Qiskit from IBM, Cirq from Google, and Pyquil from Rigetti. By running QDiff on both real hardware and quantum simulators, we found several critical bugs revealing potential instabilities in these platforms. QDiff's source transformation is effective in producing semantically equivalent yet not-identical circuits (i.e., 34% of trials), and its filtering mechanism can speed up differential testing by 66%. 
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  3. As specialized hardware accelerators like FPGAs become a prominent part of the current computing landscape, software applications are increasingly constructed to leverage heterogeneous architectures. Such a trend is already happening in the domain of machine learning and Internet-of-Things (IoT) systems built on edge devices. Yet, debugging and testing methods for heterogeneous applications are currently lacking. These applications may look similar to regular C/C++ code but include hardware synthesis details in terms of preprocessor directives. Therefore, their behavior under heterogeneous architectures may diverge significantly from CPU due to hardware synthesis details. Further, the compilation and hardware simulation cycle takes an enormous amount of time, prohibiting frequent invocations required for fuzz testing. We propose a novel fuzz testing technique, called HeteroFuzz, designed to specifically target heterogeneous applications and to detect platform-dependent divergence. The key essence of HeteroFuzz is that it uses a three-pronged approach to reduce the long latency of repetitively invoking a hardware simulator on a heterogeneous application. First, in addition to monitoring code coverage as a fuzzing guidance mechanism, we analyze synthesis pragmas in kernel code and monitor accelerator-relevant value spectra. Second, we design dynamic probabilistic mutations to increase the chance of hitting divergent behavior under different platforms. Third, we memorize the boundaries of seen kernel inputs and skip HLS simulator invocation if it can expose only redundant divergent behavior. We evaluate HeteroFuzz on seven real-world heterogeneous applications with FPGA kernels. HeteroFuzz is 754X faster in exposing the same set of distinct divergence symptoms than naive fuzzing. Probabilistic mutations contribute to 17.5X speed up than the one without. Selective invocation of HLS simulation contributes to 8.8X speed up than the one without. 
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    As big data analytics become increasingly popular, data-intensive scalable computing (DISC) systems help address the scalability issue of handling large data. However, automated testing for such data-centric applications is challenging, because data is often incomplete, continuously evolving, and hard to know a priori. Fuzz testing has been proven to be highly effective in other domains such as security; however, it is nontrivial to apply such traditional fuzzing to big data analytics directly for three reasons: (1) the long latency of DISC systems prohibits the applicability of fuzzing: naïve fuzzing would spend 98% of the time in setting up a test environment; (2) conventional branch coverage is unlikely to scale to DISC applications because most binary code comes from the framework implementation such as Apache Spark; and (3) random bit or byte level mutations can hardly generate meaningful data, which fails to reveal real-world application bugs. We propose a novel coverage-guided fuzz testing tool for big data analytics, called BigFuzz. The key essence of our approach is that: (a) we focus on exercising application logic as opposed to increasing framework code coverage by abstracting the DISC framework using specifications. BigFuzz performs automated source to source transformations to construct an equivalent DISC application suitable for fast test generation, and (b) we design schema-aware data mutation operators based on our in-depth study of DISC application error types. BigFuzz speeds up the fuzzing time by 78 to 1477X compared to random fuzzing, improves application code coverage by 20% to 271%, and achieves 33% to 157% improvement in detecting application errors. When compared to the state of the art that uses symbolic execution to test big data analytics, BigFuzz is applicable to twice more programs and can find 81% more bugs. 
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  6. Small machines are highly promising for future medicine and new materials. Recent advances in functional nanomaterials have driven the development of synthetic inorganic micromachines that are capable of efficient propulsion and complex operation. Miniaturization and large‐scale manufacturing of these tiny machines with true nanometer dimension are crucial for compatibility with subcellular components and molecular machines in operation. Here, block copolymer lithography is combined with atomic layer deposition for wafer‐scale fabrication of ultrasmall coaxial TiO2/Pt nanotubes as catalytic rocket engines with length below 150 nm and a tubular reactor size of only 20 nm, leading to the smallest man‐made rocket engine reported to date. The movement of the nanorockets is examined using dark‐field microscopy particle tracking and dynamic light scattering. The high catalytic activity of the Pt inner layer and the reaction confined within the extremely small nanoreactor enable highly efficient propulsion, achieving speeds over 35 µm s−1at a low Reynolds number of <10−5. The collective movements of these nanorockets are able to efficiently power the directional transport of significantly larger passive cargo.

     
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