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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Achieving spin-pinning at the interface of hetero-bilayer ferromagnet/antiferromagnet structures in conventional exchange bias systems can be challenging due to difficulties in interface control and the weakening of spin-pinning caused by poor interface quality. In this work, we propose an alternative approach to stabilize the exchange interaction at the interface of an uncompensated antiferromagnet by utilizing a gradient of interlayer exchange coupling. We demonstrate this exchange interaction through a designed field training protocol in the odd-layer topological antiferromagnet MnBi2Te4. Our results reveal a remarkable field-trained exchange bias of up to ~ 400 mT, which exhibits high repeatability and can be easily reset by a large training field. Notably, this field-trained exchange bias effect persists even with zero-field initialization, presenting a stark contrast to the traditional field-cooled exchange bias. The highly tunable exchange bias observed in this single antiferromagnet compound, without the need for an additional magnetic layer, provides valuable insight into the exchange interaction mechanism. These findings pave the way for the systematic design of topological antiferromagnetic spintronics.

     
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 10, 2024
  4. Abstract

    In multilayered magnetic topological insulator structures, magnetization reversal processes can drive topological phase transitions between quantum anomalous Hall, axion insulator, and normal insulator states. Here we report an examination of the critical behavior of two such transitions: the quantum anomalous Hall to normal insulator (QAH-NI), and quantum anomalous Hall to axion insulator (QAH-AXI) transitions. By introducing a new analysis protocol wherein temperature dependent variations in the magnetic coercivity are accounted for, the critical behavior of the QAH-NI and QAH-AXI transitions are evaluated over a wide range of temperature and magnetic field. Despite the uniqueness of these different transitions, quantized longitudinal resistance and Hall conductance are observed at criticality in both cases. Furthermore, critical exponents were extracted for QAH-AXI transitions occurring at magnetization reversals of two different magnetic layers. The observation of consistent critical exponents and resistances in each case, independent of the magnetic layer details, demonstrates critical behaviors in quantum anomalous Hall transitions to be of electronic rather than magnetic origin. Our finding offers a new avenue for studies of phase transition and criticality in QAH insulators.

     
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  5. Abstract

    The intrinsic magnetic topological insulator, Mn(Bi1−xSbx)2Te4, has been identified as a Weyl semimetal with a single pair of Weyl nodes in its spin-aligned strong-field configuration. A direct consequence of the Weyl state is the layer dependent Chern number,$$C$$C. Previous reports in MnBi2Te4thin films have shown higher$$C$$Cstates either by increasing the film thickness or controlling the chemical potential. A clear picture of the higher Chern states is still lacking as data interpretation is further complicated by the emergence of surface-band Landau levels under magnetic fields. Here, we report a tunable layer-dependent$$C$$C = 1 state with Sb substitution by performing a detailed analysis of the quantization states in Mn(Bi1−xSbx)2Te4dual-gated devices—consistent with calculations of the bulk Weyl point separation in the doped thin films. The observed Hall quantization plateaus for our thicker Mn(Bi1−xSbx)2Te4films under strong magnetic fields can be interpreted by a theory of surface and bulk spin-polarised Landau level spectra in thin film magnetic topological insulators.

     
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  6. Abstract

    Ferromagnetism and superconductivity are two key ingredients for topological superconductors, which can serve as building blocks of fault-tolerant quantum computers. Adversely, ferromagnetism and superconductivity are typically also two hostile orderings competing to align spins in different configurations, and thus making the material design and experimental implementation extremely challenging. A single material platform with concurrent ferromagnetism and superconductivity is actively pursued. In this paper, we fabricate van der Waals Josephson junctions made with iron-based superconductor Fe(Te,Se), and report the global device-level transport signatures of interfacial ferromagnetism emerging with superconducting states for the first time. Magnetic hysteresis in the junction resistance is observed only below the superconducting critical temperature, suggesting an inherent correlation between ferromagnetic and superconducting order parameters. The 0-π phase mixing in the Fraunhofer patterns pinpoints the ferromagnetism on the junction interface. More importantly, a stochastic field-free superconducting diode effect was observed in Josephson junction devices, with a significant diode efficiency up to 10%, which unambiguously confirms the spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking. Our work demonstrates a new way to search for topological superconductivity in iron-based superconductors for future high Tcfault-tolerant qubit implementations from a device perspective.

     
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  7. We report the implementation of a dilution refrigerator-based scanning microwave impedance microscope with a base temperature of ∼100 mK. The vibration noise of our apparatus with tuning-fork feedback control is as low as 1 nm. Using this setup, we have demonstrated the imaging of quantum anomalous Hall states in magnetically (Cr and V) doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 thin films grown on mica substrates. Both the conductive edge modes and topological phase transitions near the coercive fields of Cr- and V-doped layers are visualized in the field-dependent results. Our study establishes the experimental platform for investigating nanoscale quantum phenomena at ultralow temperatures.

     
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  8. The electric field manipulates the spin chirality and skyrmion motion direction in a magnetic heterostructure. 
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  9. Quantum computers provide faster solutions to specific compute-intensive classical problems. However, building a fault-tolerant quantum computer architecture is challenging and demands integrating several qubits with optimized signal routing while maintaining its quantum coherence. Experimental realization of such quantum computers with diverse functional components in a planar monolithic device architecture is challenging due to material and thermodynamic mismatch between various elements. Furthermore, it requires complex control and routing, resulting in parasitic modes and reduced qubit coherence. Thus, a scalable interposer architecture is essential to merge and interconnect different functionalities within a sophisticated chip while maintaining qubit coherence. As such, heterogeneous integration is an optimum solution to scale the qubit technology. We propose a heterogeneously integrated quantum chip optoelectronics interposer as a solution to the high-density scalable qubit architecture. Our technology is high-volume manufacturable and provides novel optical I/O solutions for on-chip, chip-to-chip, and cryogenic-to-outside world interconnect. 
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