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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. Although open databases are an important resource in the current deep learning (DL) era, they are sometimes used “off label”: Data published for one task are used to train algorithms for a different one. This work aims to highlight that this common practice may lead to biased, overly optimistic results. We demonstrate this phenomenon for inverse problem solvers and show how their biased performance stems from hidden data-processing pipelines. We describe two processing pipelines typical of open-access databases and study their effects on three well-established algorithms developed for MRI reconstruction: compressed sensing, dictionary learning, and DL. Our results demonstrate that all these algorithms yield systematically biased results when they are naively trained on seemingly appropriate data: The normalized rms error improves consistently with the extent of data processing, showing an artificial improvement of 25 to 48% in some cases. Because this phenomenon is not widely known, biased results sometimes are published as state of the art; we refer to that as implicit “data crimes.” This work hence aims to raise awareness regarding naive off-label usage of big data and reveal the vulnerability of modern inverse problem solvers to the resulting bias.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 29, 2023
  4. The security of manycore systems has become increasingly critical. In system-on-chips (SoCs), Hardware Trojans (HTs) manipulate the functionalities of the routing components to saturate the on-chip network, degrade performance, and result in the leakage of sensitive data. Existing HT detection techniques, including runtime monitoring and state-of-the-art learning-based methods, are unable to timely and accurately identify the implanted HTs, due to the increasingly dynamic and complex nature of on-chip communication behaviors. We propose AGAPE, a novel Generative Adversarial Network (GAN)-based anomaly detection and mitigation method against HTs for secured on-chip communication. AGAPE learns the distribution of the multivariate time series of a number of NoC attributes captured by on-chip sensors under both HT-free and HT-infected working conditions. The proposed GAN can learn the potential latent interactions among different runtime attributes concurrently, accurately distinguish abnormal attacked situations from normal SoC behaviors, and identify the type and location of the implanted HTs. Using the detection results, we apply the most suitable protection techniques to each type of detected HTs instead of simply isolating the entire HT-infected router, with the aim to mitigate security threats as well as reducing performance loss. Simulation results show that AGAPE enhances the HT detection accuracy by 19%, reducesmore »network latency and power consumption by 39% and 30%, respectively, as compared to state-of-the-art security designs.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 14, 2023
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  7. Abstract Quantum many-body systems away from equilibrium host a rich variety of exotic phenomena that are forbidden by equilibrium thermodynamics. A prominent example is that of discrete time crystals 1–8 , in which time-translational symmetry is spontaneously broken in periodically driven systems. Pioneering experiments have observed signatures of time crystalline phases with trapped ions 9,10 , solid-state spin systems 11–15 , ultracold atoms 16,17 and superconducting qubits 18–20 . Here we report the observation of a distinct type of non-equilibrium state of matter, Floquet symmetry-protected topological phases, which are implemented through digital quantum simulation with an array of programmable superconducting qubits. We observe robust long-lived temporal correlations and subharmonic temporal response for the edge spins over up to 40 driving cycles using a circuit of depth exceeding 240 and acting on 26 qubits. We demonstrate that the subharmonic response is independent of the initial state, and experimentally map out a phase boundary between the Floquet symmetry-protected topological and thermal phases. Our results establish a versatile digital simulation approach to exploring exotic non-equilibrium phases of matter with current noisy intermediate-scale quantum processors 21 .
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 21, 2023
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