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  1. We demonstrate that Cherenkov radiation can be manipulated in terms of operation frequency, bandwidth, and efficiency by simultaneously controlling the properties of drifting electrons and the photonic states supported by their surrounding media. We analytically show that the radiation rate strongly depends on the momentum of the excited photonic state, in terms of magnitude, frequency dispersion, and its variation vs the properties of the drifting carriers. This approach is applied to design and realize miniaturized, broadband, tunable, and efficient terahertz and far-infrared sources by manipulating and boosting the coupling between drifting electrons and engineered hyperbolic modes in graphene-based nanostructures. The broadband, dispersive, and confined nature of hyperbolic modes relax momentum matching issues, avoid using electron beams, and drastically enhance the radiation rate—allowing that over 90% of drifting electrons emit photons. Our findings open an exciting paradigm for the development of solid-state terahertz and infrared sources.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 9, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 30, 2023
  3. Fritts et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. xx, 2022, xx) describe a direct numerical simulation of interacting Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) billows arising due to initial billow cores that exhibit variable phases along their axes. Such KHI exhibit strong ‘tube and knot’ dynamics identified in early laboratory studies by Thorpe ( Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. , vol. 34, 1985, pp. 175–199). Thorpe ( Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. , vol. 128, 2002, pp. 1529–1542) noted that these dynamics may be prevalent in the atmosphere, and they were recently identified in atmospheric observations at high altitudes. Tube and knot dynamics were found by Fritts et al. ( J. Fluid. Mech. , 2022) to drive stronger and faster turbulence transitions than secondary instabilities of individual KH billows. Results presented here reveal that KHI tube and knot dynamics also yield energy dissipation rates $\sim$ 2–4 times larger as turbulence arises and that remain $\sim$ 2–3 times larger to later stages of the flow evolution, compared with those of secondary convective instabilities (CI) and secondary KHI accompanying KH billows without tube and knot influences. Elevated energy dissipation rates occur due to turbulence transitions by tube and knot dynamics arising on much larger scales than secondary CI andmore »KHI where initial KH billows are misaligned. Tube and knot dynamics also excite large-scale Kelvin ‘twist waves’ that cause vortex tube and billow core fragmentation, more energetic cascades of similar interactions to smaller scales and account for the strongest energy dissipation events accompanying such KH billow evolutions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 25, 2023
  4. We perform a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of interacting Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities (KHI) that arise at a stratified shear layer where KH billow cores are misaligned or exhibit varying phases along their axes. Significant evidence of these dynamics in early laboratory shear-flow studies by Thorpe ( Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. , vol. 34, 1985, pp. 175–199) and Thorpe ( J. Geophys. Res. , vol. 92, 1987, pp. 5231–5248), in observations of KH billow misalignments in tropospheric clouds (Thorpe, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. , vol. 128, 2002, pp. 1529–1542) and in recent direct observations of such events in airglow and polar mesospheric cloud imaging in the upper mesosphere reveals that these dynamics are common. More importantly, the laboratory and mesospheric observations suggest that these dynamics lead to more rapid and more intense instabilities and turbulence than secondary convective instabilities in billow cores and secondary KHI in stratified braids between and around adjacent billows. To date, however, no simulations exploring the dynamics and energetics of interacting KH billows (apart from pairing) have been performed. Our DNS performed for Richardson number $Ri=0.10$ and Reynolds number $Re=5000$ demonstrates that KHI tubes and knots (i) comprise strong and complex vortex interactions accompanying misaligned KH billows,more »(ii) accelerate the transition to turbulence relative to secondary instabilities of individual KH billows, (iii) yield significantly stronger turbulence than secondary KHI in billow braids and secondary convective instabilities in KHI billow cores and (iv) expand the suite of secondary instabilities previously recognized to contribute to KHI dynamics and breakdown to turbulence in realistic geophysical environments.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 25, 2023
  5. This paper applies probabilistic amplitude shaping (PAS) to a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) aided trellis coded modulation (TCM) to achieve the short-blocklength random coding union (RCU) bound. In the transmitter, the equally likely message bits are first encoded by distribution matcher to generate amplitude symbols with the desired distribution. The binary representations of the distribution matcher outputs are then encoded by a CRC. Finally, the CRC-encoded bits are encoded and modulated by Ungerboeck's TCM scheme, which consists of a k/(k+1) systematic tail-biting convolutional code and a mapping function that maps coded bits to channel signals with capacity-achieving distribution. This paper proves that, for the proposed transmitter, the CRC bits have uniform distribution and that the channel signals have symmetric distribution. In the receiver, the serial list Viterbi decoding (S-LVD) is used to estimate the information bits. Simulation results show that, for the proposed CRC-TCM-PAS system with 87 input bits and 65-67 8-AM coded output symbols, the decoding performance under additive white Gaussian noise channel achieves the RCU bound with properly designed CRC and convolutional codes.
  6. Oshima, J. ; Mochizuki, T. ; Hayashi, Y. (Ed.)

    We present ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (NIR) observations and analysis of the nearby Type Ia supernova SN 2021fxy. Our observations include UV photometry from Swift/UVOT, UV spectroscopy from HST/STIS, and high-cadence optical photometry with the Swope 1-m telescope capturing intranight rises during the early light curve. Early B − V colours show SN 2021fxy is the first ‘shallow-silicon’ (SS) SN Ia to follow a red-to-blue evolution, compared to other SS objects which show blue colours from the earliest observations. Comparisons to other spectroscopically normal SNe Ia with HST UV spectra reveal SN 2021fxy is one of several SNe Ia with flux suppression in the mid-UV. These SNe also show blueshifted mid-UV spectral features and strong high-velocity Ca ii features. One possible origin of this mid-UV suppression is the increased effective opacity in the UV due to increased line blanketing from high velocity material, but differences in the explosion mechanism cannot be ruled out. Among SNe Ia with mid-UV suppression, SNe 2021fxy and 2017erp show substantial similarities in their optical properties despite belonging to different Branch subgroups, and UV flux differences of the same order as those found between SNe 2011fe and 2011by. Differential comparisons to multiple sets of synthetic SNmore »Ia UV spectra reveal this UV flux difference likely originates from a luminosity difference between SNe 2021fxy and 2017erp, and not differing progenitor metallicities as suggested for SNe 2011by and 2011fe. These comparisons illustrate the complicated nature of UV spectral formation, and the need for more UV spectra to determine the physical source of SNe Ia UV diversity.

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  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  9. The automation of extracting argument structures faces a pair of challenges on (1) encoding long-term contexts to facilitate comprehensive understanding, and (2) improving data efficiency since constructing high-quality argument structures is time-consuming. In this work, we propose a novel context-aware Transformer-based argument structure prediction model which, on five different domains, significantly outperforms models that rely on features or only encode limited contexts. To tackle the difficulty of data annotation, we examine two complementary methods: (i) transfer learning to leverage existing annotated data to boost model performance in a new target domain, and (ii) active learning to strategically identify a small amount of samples for annotation. We further propose model-independent sample acquisition strategies, which can be generalized to diverse domains. With extensive experiments, we show that our simple-yet-effective acquisition strategies yield competitive results against three strong comparisons. Combined with transfer learning, substantial F1 score boost (5-25) can be further achieved during the early iterations of active learning across domains.