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  1. Abstract

    As a supplementary or the only water source in dry regions, dew plays a critical role in the survival of organisms. The new hydrological tracer17O-excess, with almost sole dependence on relative humidity, provides a new way to distinguish the evaporation processes and reconstruct the paleoclimate. Up to now, there is no published daily dew isotope record on δ2H, δ18O, δ17O, d-excess, and17O-excess. Here, we collected daily dew between July 2014 and April 2018 from three distinct climatic regions (i.e., Gobabeb in the central Namib Desert with desert climate, Nice in France with Mediterranean climate, and Indianapolis in the central United States with humid continental climate). The δ2H, δ18O, and δ17O of dew were simultaneously analyzed using a Triple Water Vapor Isotope Analyzer based on Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy technique, and then d-excess and17O-excess were calculated. This report presents daily dew isotope dataset under three climatic regions. It is useful for researchers to use it as a reference when studying global dew dynamics and dew formation mechanisms.

  2. Abstract

    Despite the growing interest in predicting global and regional trends in vegetation productivity in response to a changing climate, changes in water constraint on vegetation productivity (i.e., water limitations on vegetation growth) remain poorly understood. Here we conduct a comprehensive evaluation of changes in water constraint on vegetation growth in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere between 1982 and 2015. We document a significant increase in vegetation water constraint over this period. Remarkably divergent trends were found with vegetation water deficit areas significantly expanding, and water surplus areas significantly shrinking. The increase in water constraints associated with water deficit was also consistent with a decreasing response time to water scarcity, suggesting a stronger susceptibility of vegetation to drought. We also observed shortened water surplus period for water surplus areas, suggesting a shortened exposure to water surplus associated with humid conditions. These observed changes were found to be attributable to trends in temperature, solar radiation, precipitation, and atmospheric CO2. Our findings highlight the need for a more explicit consideration of the influence of water constraints on regional and global vegetation under a warming climate.

  3. Abstract

    The oak (Quercus) species of eastern North America are declining in abundance, threatening the many socioecological benefits they provide. We discuss the mechanisms responsible for their loss, many of which are rooted in the prevailing view that oaks are drought tolerant. We then synthesize previously published data to comprehensively review the drought response strategies of eastern US oaks, concluding that whether or not eastern oaks are drought tolerant depends firmly on the metric of success. Although the anisohydric strategy of oaks sometimes confers a gas exchange and growth advantage, it exposes oaks to damaging hydraulic failure, such that oaks are just as or more likely to perish during drought than neighboring species. Consequently, drought frequency is not a strong predictor of historic patterns of oak abundance, although long-term climate and fire frequency are strongly correlated with declines in oak dominance. The oaks’ ability to survive drought may become increasingly difficult in a drier future.

  4. Abstract

    Tap water isotopic compositions could potentially record information on local climate and water management practices. A new water isotope tracer17O-excess became available in recent years providing additional information of the various hydrological processes. Detailed data records of tap water17O-excess have not been reported. In this report, monthly tap water samples (n = 652) were collected from December 2014 to November 2015 from 92 collection sites across China. The isotopic composition (δ2H, δ18O, and δ17O) of tap water was analyzed by a Triple Water Vapor Isotope Analyzer (T-WVIA) based on Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) technique and two second-order isotopic variables (d-excess and17O-excess) were calculated. The geographic location information of the 92 collection sites including latitude, longitude, and elevation were also provided in this dataset. This report presents national-scale tap water isotope dataset at monthly time scale. Researchers and water resource managers who focus on the tap water issues could use them to probe the water source and water management strategies at large spatial scales.

  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 17, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 18, 2024
  7. Breast and mammary epithelial cells experience different local environments during tissue development and tumorigenesis. Microenvironmental heterogeneity gives rise to distinct cell regulatory states whose identity and importance are just beginning to be appreciated. Cellular states diversify when clonal three-dimensional (3D) spheroids are cultured in basement membrane, and one such state is associated with stress tolerance and poor response to anticancer therapeutics. Here, we found that this state was jointly coordinated by the NRF2 and p53 pathways, which were costabilized by spontaneous oxidative stress within 3D cultures. Inhibition of NRF2 or p53 individually disrupted some of the transcripts defining the regulatory state but did not yield a notable phenotype in nontransformed breast epithelial cells. In contrast, combined perturbation prevented 3D growth in an oxidative stress–dependent manner. By integrating systems models of NRF2 and p53 signaling in a single oxidative stress network, we recapitulated these observations and made predictions about oxidative stress profiles during 3D growth. NRF2 and p53 signaling were similarly coordinated in normal breast epithelial tissue and hormone-negative ductal carcinoma in situ lesions but were uncoupled in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a subtype in which p53 is usually mutated. Using the integrated model, we correlated the extent of this uncouplingmore »in TNBC cell lines with the importance of NRF2 in the 3D growth of these cell lines and their predicted handling of oxidative stress. Our results point to an oxidative stress tolerance network that is important for single cells during glandular development and the early stages of breast cancer.« less