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  1. Abstract

    In plant immunity, a well-orchestrated cascade is initiated by the dimerization of receptor-like kinases (RLKs), followed by the phosphorylation of receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) and subsequent activation of NADPH oxidases for ROS generation. Recent findings by Zhong et al. illustrated that a maize signaling module comprising ZmWAKL-ZmWIK-ZmBLK1-ZmRBOH4 governs quantitative disease resistance to grey leaf spot, a pervasive fungal disease in maize worldwide, unveiling the conservation of this signaling quartet in plant immunity.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2025
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  6. To date, it has remained challenging to achieve N-polar AlN, which is of great importance for high power, high frequency, and high temperature electronics, acoustic resonators and filters, ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronics, and integrated photonics. Here, we performed a detailed study of the molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of N-polar AlN on C-face 4H-SiC substrates. The N-polar AlN films grown under optimized conditions exhibit an atomically smooth surface and strong excitonic emission in the deep UV with luminescence efficiency exceeding 50% at room temperature. Detailed scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) studies suggest that most dislocations are terminated/annihilated within ∼200 nm AlN grown directly on the SiC substrate due to the relatively small (1%) lattice mismatch between AlN and SiC. The strain distribution of AlN is further analyzed by STEM and micro-Raman spectroscopy, and its impact on the temperature-dependent deep UV emission is elucidated.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  7. Interface engineering in heterostructures at the atomic scale has been a central research focus of nanoscale and quantum material science. Despite its paramount importance, the achievement of atomically ordered heterointerfaces has been severely limited by the strong diffusive feature of interfacial atoms in heterostructures. In this work, we first report a strong dependence of interfacial diffusion on the surface polarity. Near-perfect quantum interfaces can be readily synthesized on the semipolar plane instead of the conventionalc-plane of GaN/AlN heterostructures. The chemical bonding configurations on the semipolar plane can significantly suppress the cation substitution process as evidenced by first-principles calculations, which leads to an atomically sharp interface. Moreover, the surface polarity of GaN/AlN can be readily controlled by varying the strain relaxation process in core–shell nanostructures. The obtained extremely confined, interdiffusion-free ultrathin GaN quantum wells exhibit a high internal quantum efficiency of ~75%. Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes are fabricated utilizing a scalable and robust method and the electroluminescence emission is nearly free of the quantum-confined Stark effect, which is significant for ultrastable device operation. The presented work shows a vital path for achieving atomically ordered quantum heterostructures for III-nitrides as well as other polar materials such as III-arsenides, perovskites, etc.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 31, 2024
  8. N-polar AlGaN is an emerging wide-bandgap semiconductor for next-generation high electron mobility transistors and ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers. Here, we demonstrate the growth and characterization of high-quality N-polar AlGaN films on C-face 4H-silicon carbide (SiC) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. On optimization of the growth conditions, N-polar AlGaN films exhibit a crack free, atomically smooth surface (rms roughness ∼ 0.9 nm), and high crystal quality with low density of defects and dislocations. The N-polar crystallographic orientation of the epitaxially grown AlGaN film is unambiguously confirmed by wet chemical etching. We demonstrate precise compositional tunability of the N-polar AlGaN films over a wide range of Al content and a high internal quantum efficiency ∼74% for the 65% Al content AlGaN film at room temperature. Furthermore, controllable silicon (Si) doping in high Al content (65%) N-polar AlGaN films has been demonstrated with the highest mobility value ∼65 cm2/V-s observed corresponding to an electron concentration of 1.1 × 1017 cm−3, whereas a relatively high mobility value of 18 cm2/V-s is sustained for an electron concentration of 3.2 × 1019 cm−3, with an exceptionally low resistivity value of 0.009 Ω·cm. The polarity-controlled epitaxy of AlGaN on SiC presents a viable approach for achieving high-quality N-polar III-nitride semiconductors that can be harnessed for a wide range of emerging electronic and optoelectronic device applications.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 30, 2024