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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2022
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2022
  3. Secular trend in body weight is an indicator of environmental adaptation and changes in nutrition and health over time. In this study, we examined body weight of Macaca mulatta from Cayo Santiago to investigate how body weight changed in past 80 years. Rhesus macaques were introduced from India to the Caribbean island in 1938, and the colony history was characterized by fluctuations in resource provisioning, population dynamics, and medical care, in addition to acclimation. We collated body weight data of 921 females and 1202 males born between 1938 and 2009, collected by researchers between 1956 and 2014. All subjects weremore »categorised by sex, partitioned into five period cohorts based on colony conditions at the time of their birth (1938-55, 1956-68, 1969-74, 1975-83, 1984-2009), and body weights for each cohort were calculated at different age-intervals (yearly from 0-1 to 5-6, then 6-10 and 11-15). Results revealed that overall, males and females alike, in early age-intervals (0-4 years), the 1938-55 cohort had the lightest body weight, while in the young adulthood age-intervals (6-10 years) the 1969-74 cohort had the heaviest body weight. This latter cohort experienced low population densities, unlike subsequent generations (1975-83), and a protein increase in provisioning relative to previous generations (1956-68). However, the most recent cohort (1984-2009) displayed the lowest mean body weights across almost all age-intervals, despite them receiving a tetanus vaccine (hence longer expectancy), annual population culling and regular provisioning. Further investigation is warranted to differentiate the effects of different environmental factors on the Cayo Santiago colony.« less
  4. Understanding factors affecting tooth wear in primates is of interest because as teeth wear, their chewing efficiency can change—in some species positively and in others negatively. It is well known that teeth wear with age, but relationships between sex and tooth wear and between body size and tooth wear are less well understood. Here we analyze molar wear scores from a cross-sectional sample of 212 Cayo Santiago rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) adults examined in 1985. Because males are generally larger than females—potentially processing more food over their lifetimes—we hypothesized that with age included in an ordinal logistic regression model, malesmore »would exhibit significantly greater wear than females. We further hypothesized that males of larger body mass would exhibit greater wear than males of smaller body mass. Finally, because many of the females were pregnant or lactating at the time of dental examination, we hypothesized that there would be no relationship between body mass and wear in females. We found that with age included in ordinal logistic regression models, males had significantly more worn molars than females, larger males had more worn molars than smaller males, and that for females, molar wear was not significantly related to body mass. These results suggest that over the life course, animals with larger body sizes (males vs. females and larger vs. smaller males) may accumulate more wear than those with smaller body sizes. Future analyses to be conducted on the Cayo Santiago monkeys’ skeletal remains will further evaluate this possibility.« less
  5. Arabnia, Hamid R. ; Deligiannidis, Leonidas ; Tinetti, Fernando G. ; Tran, Quoc-Nam (Ed.)
    Primate models are important for understanding human conditions, especially in studies of ageing, pathology, adaptation, and evolution. However, how to integrate data from multiple disciplines and render them compatible with each other for datamining and in-depth study is always challenging. In a long-term project, we have started a collaborative research endeavor to examine the health history of a free-ranging rhesus macaque colony at Cayo Santiago, and build a knowledge model for anthropological and biomedical/translational studies of the effects of environment and genetics on bone development, aging, and pathologies. This paper discusses the conceptual design as well as the prototyping ofmore »this model and related graphical user interfaces, and how these will help future scientific queries and studies.« less
  6. Understanding factors affecting tooth wear in primates is of interest because as teeth wear, their chewing efficiency can change—in some species positively and in others negatively. It is well known that teeth wear with age, but relationships between sex and tooth wear and between body size and tooth wear are less well understood. Here we analyze molar wear scores from a cross-sectional sample of 212 Cayo Santiago rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) adults examined in 1985. Because males are generally larger than females --potentially processing more food over their lifetimes--we hypothesized that with age included in an ordinal logistic regression model,more »males would exhibit significantly greater wear than females. We further hypothesized that males of larger body mass would exhibit greater wear than males of smaller body mass. Finally, because many of the females were pregnant or lactating at the time of dental examination, we hypothesized that there would be no relationship between body mass and wear in females. We found that with age included in ordinal logistic regression models, males had significantly more worn molars than females, larger males had more worn molars than smaller males, and that for females, molar wear was not significantly related to body mass. These results suggest that over the life course, animals with larger body sizes (males vs. females and larger vs. smaller males) may accumulate more wear than those with smaller body sizes. Future analyses to be conducted on the Cayo Santiago monkeys’ skeletal remains will further evaluate this possibility. Funding Sources: The Cayo Santiago colony is supported by NIH 5P40OD012217. This project is supported by NSF grants to DG-S., LK., MZ, and QW (NSF #1926528, 1926481, 1926402, and 1926601).« less
  7. Understanding factors affecting tooth wear in primates is of interest because as teeth wear, their chewing efficiency can change—in some species positively and in others negatively. It is well known that teeth wear with age, but relationships between sex and tooth wear and between body size and tooth wear are less well understood. Here we analyze molar wear scores from a cross-sectional sample of 212 Cayo Santiago rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) adults examined in 1985. Because males are generally larger than females --potentially processing more food over their lifetimes--we hypothesized that with age included in an ordinal logistic regression model,more »males would exhibit significantly greater wear than females. We further hypothesized that males of larger body mass would exhibit greater wear than males of smaller body mass. Finally, because many of the females were pregnant or lactating at the time of dental examination, we hypothesized that there would be no relationship between body mass and wear in females. We found that with age included in ordinal logistic regression models, males had significantly more worn molars than females, larger males had more worn molars than smaller males, and that for females, molar wear was not significantly related to body mass. These results suggest that over the life course, animals with larger body sizes (males vs. females and larger vs. smaller males) may accumulate more wear than those with smaller body sizes. Future analyses to be conducted on the Cayo Santiago monkeys’ skeletal remains will further evaluate this possibility. Funding Sources: The Cayo Santiago colony is supported by NIH 5P40OD012217. This project is supported by NSF grants to DG-S., LK., MZ, and QW (NSF #1926528, 1926481, 1926402, and 1926601).« less
  8. Understanding factors affecting tooth wear in primates is of interest because as teeth wear, their chewing efficiency can change—in some species positively and in others negatively. It is well known that teeth wear with age, but relationships between sex and tooth wear and between body size and tooth wear are less well understood. Here we analyze molar wear scores from a cross-sectional sample of 212 Cayo Santiago rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) adults examined in 1985. Because males are generally larger than females --potentially processing more food over their lifetimes--we hypothesized that with age included in an ordinal logistic regression model,more »males would exhibit significantly greater wear than females. We further hypothesized that males of larger body mass would exhibit greater wear than males of smaller body mass. Finally, because many of the females were pregnant or lactating at the time of dental examination, we hypothesized that there would be no relationship between body mass and wear in females. We found that with age included in ordinal logistic regression models, males had significantly more worn molars than females, larger males had more worn molars than smaller males, and that for females, molar wear was not significantly related to body mass. These results suggest that over the life course, animals with larger body sizes (males vs. females and larger vs. smaller males) may accumulate more wear than those with smaller body sizes. Future analyses to be conducted on the Cayo Santiago monkeys’ skeletal remains will further evaluate this possibility. Funding Sources: The Cayo Santiago colony is supported by NIH 5P40OD012217. This project is supported by NSF grants to DG-S., LK., MZ, and QW (NSF #1926528, 1926481, 1926402, and 1926601).« less
  9. Abstract The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel of the Montreal Protocol under the United Nations Environment Programme evaluates effects on the environment and human health that arise from changes in the stratospheric ozone layer and concomitant variations in ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth’s surface. The current update is based on scientific advances that have accumulated since our last assessment (Photochem and Photobiol Sci 20(1):1–67, 2021). We also discuss how climate change affects stratospheric ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation, and how stratospheric ozone depletion affects climate change. The resulting interlinking effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and climate change aremore »assessed in terms of air quality, carbon sinks, ecosystems, human health, and natural and synthetic materials. We further highlight potential impacts on the biosphere from extreme climate events that are occurring with increasing frequency as a consequence of climate change. These and other interactive effects are examined with respect to the benefits that the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments are providing to life on Earth by controlling the production of various substances that contribute to both stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023