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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    We present Magnetospheric Multiscale observations of electrostatic double layers in quasi‐perpendicular Earth's bow shock. These double layers have predominantly parallel electric field with amplitudes up to 100 mV/m, spatial widths of 50–700 m, and plasma frame speeds within 100 km/s. The potential drop across a single double layer is 2%–7% of the cross‐shock potential in the de Hoffmann‐Teller frame and occurs over the spatial scale of 10 Debye lengths or one tenth of electron inertial length. Some double layers can have spatial width of 70 Debye lengths and potential drop up to 30% of the cross‐shock potential. The electron temperature variation observed across double layers is roughly consistent with their potential drop. While electron heating in the Earth's bow shock occurs predominantly due to the quasi‐static electric field in the de Hoffmann‐Teller frame, these observations show that electron temperature can also increase across Debye‐scale electrostatic structures.

  3. The success of authorship attribution relies on the presence of linguistic features specific to individual authors. There is, however, limited research assessing to what extent authorial style remains constant when individuals switch from one writing modality to another. We measure the effect of writing mode on writing style in the context of authorship attribution research using a corpus of documents composed online (in a web browser) and documents composed offline using a traditional word processor. The results confirm the existence of a “mode effect” on authorial style. Online writing differs systematically from offline writing in terms of sentence length, word use, readability, and certain part-of-speech ratios. These findings have implications for research design and feature engineering in authorship attribution studies.