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  1. Pairs of interacting transcription factors (TFs) have previously been shown to bind to enhancers and promoters and contribute to their physical interactions. However, to date, we have limited knowledge about such TF pairs. To fill this void, we systematically studied the co-occurrence of TF-binding motifs in interacting enhancer–promoter (EP) pairs in seven human cell lines. We discovered 423 motif pairs that significantly co-occur in enhancers and promoters of interacting EP pairs. We demonstrated that these motif pairs are biologically meaningful and significantly enriched with motif pairs of known interacting TF pairs. We also showed that the identified motif pairs facilitatedmore »the discovery of the interacting EP pairs. The developed pipeline, EPmotifPair, together with the predicted motifs and motif pairs, is available at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.14192000. Our study provides a comprehensive list of motif pairs that may contribute to EP physical interactions, which facilitate generating meaningful hypotheses for experimental validation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 25, 2023
  3. Abstract The relationship between extreme precipitation intensity and temperature has been comprehensively studied over different regions worldwide. However, the effect of temperature on the spatiotemporal organization of precipitation, which can have a significant impact on precipitation intensity, has not been adequately studied or understood. In this study, we propose a novel approach to quantifying the spatial and temporal concentration of precipitation at the event level and study how the concentration varies with temperature. The results based on rain gauge data from 843 stations in the Ganzhou county, a humid region in south China, show that rain events tend to bemore »more concentrated both temporally and spatially at higher temperature, and this increase in concentration qualitatively holds for events of different precipitation amounts and durations. The effects of temperature on precipitation organization in space and in time differ at high temperatures. The temporal concentration increases with temperature up to a threshold (approximately 24°C) beyond which it plateaus, whereas the spatial concentration keeps rising with temperature. More concentrated precipitation, in addition to a projected increase of extreme precipitation, would intensify flooding in a warming world, causing more detrimental effects.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 23, 2023
  5. Dielectric elastomers (DEs) deform and change shape when an electric field is applied across them. They are flexible, resilient, lightweight, and durable and as such are suitable for use as soft actuators. In this paper a physics-based and control-oriented model is developed for a DE tubular actuator using a physics-lumped parameter modeling approach. The model derives from the nonlinear partial differential equations (PDE) which govern the nonlinear elasticity of the DE actuator and the ordinary differential equation (ODE) that governs the electrical dynamics of the DE actuator. With the boundary conditions for the tubular actuator, the nonlinear PDEs are numericallymore »solved and a quasi-static nonlinear model is obtained and validated by experiments. The full nonlinear model is then linearized around an operating point with an analytically derived Hessian matrix. The analytically linearized model is validated by experiments. Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID) and H∞ control are developed and implemented to perform position reference tracking of the DEA and the controllers’ performances are evaluated according to control energy and tracking error.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 26, 2022
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  7. Realizing quantum speedup for practically relevant, computationally hard problems is a central challenge in quantum information science. Using Rydberg atom arrays with up to 289 qubits in two spatial dimensions, we experimentally investigate quantum algorithms for solving the Maximum Independent Set problem. We use a hardware-efficient encoding associated with Rydberg blockade, realize closed-loop optimization to test several variational algorithms, and subsequently apply them to systematically explore a class of graphs with programmable connectivity. We find the problem hardness is controlled by the solution degeneracy and number of local minima, and experimentally benchmark the quantum algorithm’s performance against classical simulated annealing.more »On the hardest graphs, we observe a superlinear quantum speedup in finding exact solutions in the deep circuit regime and analyze its origins.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 5, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022