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  1. Abstract

    The 2020–2021 record drought in Taiwan halted carbon sequestration in its predominantly evergreen subtropical forests. The analysis uncovers a significant correlation between net ecosystem exchange, radiative factors, groundwater levels, and wildfires, indicating that the severity of droughts leads to a shift from carbon absorption to emission in these forests, thereby inviting a broader examination of the climate–carbon nexus in future scenarios.

     
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  2. Abstract In recent decades, the interior regions of Eurasia and North America have experienced several unprecedentedly cold winters despite the global surface air temperature increases. One possible explanation of these increasing extreme cold winters comes from the so-called Warm Arctic Cold Continent (WACC) pattern, reflecting the effects of the amplified Arctic warming in driving the circulation change over surrounding continents. This study analyzed reanalysis data and model experiments forced by different levels of anthropogenic forcing. It is found that WACC exists on synoptic scales in observations, model’s historical and even future runs. In the future, the analysis suggests a continued presence of WACC but with a slightly weakened cold extreme due to the overall warming. Warm Arctic events under the warmer climate will be associated with not only a colder continent in East Asia but also a warmer continent, depending on the teleconnection process that is also complicated by the warmer Arctic. Such an increasingly association suggests a reduction in potential predictability of the midlatitude winter anomalies. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 6, 2024
  4. Uncertainty about sea-level rise is dominated by uncertainty about iceberg calving, mass loss from glaciers or ice sheets by fracturing. Review of the rapidly growing calving literature leads to a few overarching hypotheses. Almost all calving occurs near or just downglacier of a location where ice flows into an environment more favorable for calving, so the calving rate is controlled primarily by flow to the ice margin rather than by fracturing. Calving can be classified into five regimes, which tend to be persistent, predictable, and insensitive to small perturbations in flow velocity, ice characteristics, or environmental forcing; these regimes can be studied instrumentally. Sufficiently large perturbations may cause sometimes-rapid transitions between regimes or between calving and noncalving behavior, during which fracturing may control the rate of calving. Regime transitions underlie the largest uncertainties in sea-level rise projections, but with few, important exceptions, have not been observed instrumentally. This is especially true of the most important regime transitions for sea-level rise. Process-based models informed by studies of ongoing calving, and assimilation of deep-time paleoclimatic data, may help reduce uncertainties about regime transitions. Failure to include calving accurately in predictive models could lead to large underestimates of warming-induced sea-level rise. ▪ Iceberg calving, the breakage of ice from glaciers and ice sheets, affects sea level and many other environmental issues. ▪ Modern rates of iceberg calving usually are controlled by the rate of ice flow past restraining points, not by the brittle calving processes. ▪ Calving can be classified into five regimes, which are persistent, predictable, and insensitive to small perturbations. ▪ Transitions between calving regimes are especially important and with warming might cause faster sea-level rise than generally projected. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Volume 51 is May 2023. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates. 
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  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 22, 2024
  6. Abstract

    Summertime air quality is a growing public health concern in the populated region of Northern Utah. Whereas winter air pollution is highly linked with local atmospheric temperature inversions associated with upper atmospheric high-pressure and radiational cooling in valleys, the relationship between climate factors and the frequency of poor air quality during summer is still unknown. Analyzing the last 20 years of data, we demonstrated that summertime unhealthy days (as defined by PM2.5 air quality index level) in Northern Utah highly correlate with the number of dry-hot days, wildfire size, and an upper atmospheric ridge over the Northwestern United States. The persistent atmospheric ridge enhances lightning-caused fire burned areas in northwestern states and then transports the wildfire smoke toward Northern Utah. Similarly, climate model simulations confirm observational findings, such as an increasing trend of the upper atmospheric ridge and summertime dry days in the northwestern states. Such metrics developed in this study could be used to establish longer-term monitoring and seasonal forecasting for air quality and its compounding factors, which is currently limited to forecasting products for only several days.

     
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