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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 30, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 11, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Cover crops have long been seen as an effective management practice to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) and reduce nitrogen (N) leaching. However, there are large uncertainties in quantifying these ecosystem services using either observation (e.g. field measurement, remote sensing data) or process-based modeling. In this study, we developed and implemented a model–data fusion (MDF) framework to improve the quantification of cover crop benefits in SOC accrual and N retention in central Illinois by integrating process-based modeling and remotely-sensed observations. Specifically, we first constrained and validated the process-based agroecosystem model,ecosys, using observations of cover crop aboveground biomass derived from satellite-based spectral signals, which is highly consistent with field measurements. Then, we compared the simulated cover crop benefits in SOC accrual and N leaching reduction with and without the constraints of remotely-sensed cover crop aboveground biomass. When benchmarked with remote sensing-based observations, the constrained simulations all show significant improvements in quantifying cover crop aboveground biomass C compared with the unconstrained ones, withR2increasing from 0.60 to 0.87, and root mean square error (RMSE) and absolute bias decreasing by 64% and 97%, respectively. On all study sites, the constrained simulations of aboveground biomass C and N at termination are 29% and 35% lower than the unconstrained ones on average. Correspondingly, the averages of simulated SOC accrual and N retention net benefits are 31% and 23% lower than the unconstrained simulations, respectively. Our results show that the MDF framework with remotely-sensed biomass constraints effectively reduced the uncertainties in cover crop biomass simulations, which further constrained the quantification of cover crop-induced ecosystem services in increasing SOC and reducing N leaching.

     
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  5. Using a starlike Be 6 Au 7 − cluster as a building block and following the bottom-up strategy, an intriguing two-dimensional (2D) binary s-block metal Be 2 Au monolayer with a P 6/ mmm space group was theoretically designed. Both the Be 6 Au 7 − cluster and the 2D monolayer are global minima featuring rule-breaking planar hexacoordinate motifs (anti-van't Hoff/Le Bel arrangement), and their high stabilities are attributed to good electron delocalization and electronic-stabilization-induced steric force. Strikingly, the Be 2 Au monolayer is a rare Dirac material with two perfect Dirac node-loops in the band structure and is a phonon-mediated superconductor with a critical temperature of 4.0 K. The critical temperature can be enhanced up to 11.0 K by applying compressive strain at only 1.6%. This study not only identifies a new binary s-block metal 2D material, namely Be 2 Au, which features planar hexacoordination, and a candidate superconducting material for further explorations, but also provides a new strategy to construct 2D materials with novel chemical bonding. 
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