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Creators/Authors contains: "Wang, Taiyi A."

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    There is a growing recognition that subsurface fluid injection can produce not only earthquakes, but also aseismic slip on faults. A major challenge in understanding interactions between injection-related aseismic and seismic slip on faults is identifying aseismic slip on the field scale, given that most monitored fields are only equipped with seismic arrays. We present a modeling workflow for evaluating the possibility of aseismic slip, given observational constraints on the spatial-temporal distribution of microseismicity, injection rate, and wellhead pressure. Our numerical model simultaneously simulates discrete off-fault microseismic events and aseismic slip on a main fault during fluid injection. We apply the workflow to the 2012 Enhanced Geothermal System injection episode at Cooper Basin, Australia, which aimed to stimulate a water-saturated granitic reservoir containing a highly permeable ($$k = 10^{-13} - 10^{-12}$$k=10-13-10-12$$\hbox {m}{^2}$$m2) fault zone. We find that aseismic slip likely contributed to half of the total moment release. In addition, fault weakening from pore pressure changes, not elastic stress transfer from aseismic slip, induces the majority of observed microseismic events, given the inferred stress state. We derive a theoretical model to better estimate the time-dependent spatial extent of seismicity triggered by increases in pore pressure. To our knowledge, this is the first time injection-induced aseismic slip in a granitic reservoir has been inferred, suggesting that aseismic slip could be widespread across a range of lithologies.

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  3. Abstract

    In 2018 Kı̄lauea volcano erupted a decade's worth of basalt, given estimated magma supply rates, triggering caldera collapse. Yet, less than 2.5 years later Kı̄lauea re‐erupted. At the 2018 eruption onset, pressure within the summit reservoir was ∼20 MPa above magmastatic. By the onset of collapse this decreased by ∼17 MPa. Analysis of magma surges at the 2018 fissures, following collapse events, implies excess pressure at the eruption end of only ∼1 MPa. Given the new vent elevation, ∼11–12 MPa pressure increase was required to bring magma to the surface in December 2020. Analysis of Global Positioning System data between 8/2018 and 12/2020 shows there was a 73% probability that this condition was met at the onset of the 2020 eruption. Given a plausible range of possible vent elevations, there was a 40%–88% probability of sufficient pressure to bring magma to the surface 100 days before the eruption.

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  4. Abstract

    Inflationary deformation and very long period (VLP) earthquakes frequently accompany basaltic caldera collapses, yet current interpretations do not reflect physically consistent mechanisms. We present a lumped parameter model accounting for caldera block/magma momentum change, magma chamber pressurization, and ring fault (assumed vertical) shear stress drop. Pressurization of the underlying magma chamber is represented by a tri‐axial expansion source, and the combined caldera block/magma momentum change by a vertical single force. The model is applied to Kīlauea 2018 caldera collapse events, accurately predicting near field static/dynamic ground motions. In addition to the tri‐axial expansion source, the single force contributes significantly to the VLP waveforms. For an average collapse event with fully developed ring fault, Bayesian inversion constrains ring fault stress drop to ∼0.4 MPa and the pressure increase to ∼1.9 MPa. That the predictions fit both geodetic and seismic observations confirms that the model captures the dominant caldera collapse mechanisms.

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