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  1. The human medial temporal lobe (MTL) plays a crucial role in recognizing visual objects, a key cognitive function that relies on the formation of semantic representations. Nonetheless, it remains unknown how visual information of general objects is translated into semantic representations in the MTL. Furthermore, the debate about whether the human MTL is involved in perception has endured for a long time. To address these questions, we investigated three distinct models of neural object coding—semantic coding, axis-based feature coding, and region-based feature coding—in each subregion of the MTL, using high-resolution fMRI in two male and six female participants. Our findings revealed the presence of semantic coding throughout the MTL, with a higher prevalence observed in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and perirhinal cortex (PRC), while axis coding and region coding were primarily observed in the earlier regions of the MTL. Moreover, we demonstrated that voxels exhibiting axis coding supported the transition to region coding and contained information relevant to semantic coding. Together, by providing a detailed characterization of neural object coding schemes and offering a comprehensive summary of visual coding information for each MTL subregion, our results not only emphasize a clear role of the MTL in perceptual processing but also shed light on the translation of perception-driven representations of visual features into memory-driven representations of semantics along the MTL processing pathway.

    Significance StatementIn this study, we delved into the mechanisms underlying visual object recognition within the human medial temporal lobe (MTL), a pivotal region known for its role in the formation of semantic representations crucial for memory. In particular, the translation of visual information into semantic representations within the MTL has remained unclear, and the enduring debate regarding the involvement of the human MTL in perception has persisted. To address these questions, we comprehensively examined distinct neural object coding models across each subregion of the MTL, leveraging high-resolution fMRI. We also showed transition of information between object coding models and across MTL subregions. Our findings significantly contributes to advancing our understanding of the intricate pathway involved in visual object coding.

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  2. Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) enjoys great advantage in 5G wireless communication systems owing to its spectrum and energy efficiency. However, hundreds of antennas require large volumes of pilot overhead to guarantee reliable channel estimation in FDD massive MIMO system. Compressive sensing (CS) has been applied for channel estimation by exploiting the inherent sparse structure of massive MIMO channel but suffer from high complexity. To overcome this challenge, this paper develops a hybrid channel estimation scheme by integrating the model-driven CS and data-driven deep unrolling technique. The proposed scheme consists of a coarse estimation part and a fine correction part to respectively exploit the inter- and intraframe sparsities of channels to greatly reduce the pilot overhead. Theoretical result is provided to indicate the convergence of the fine correction and coarse estimation net. Simulation results are provided to verify that our scheme can estimate MIMO channels with low pilot overhead while guaranteeing estimation accuracy with relatively low complexity. 
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  3. Fairness and robustness are two important goals in the design of modern distributed learning systems. Despite a few prior works attempting to achieve both fairness and robustness, some key aspects of this direction remain underexplored. In this paper, we try to answer three largely unnoticed and unaddressed questions that are of paramount significance to this topic: (i) What makes jointly satisfying fairness and robustness difficult? (ii) Is it possible to establish theoretical guarantee for the dual property of fairness and robustness? (iii) How much does fairness have to sacrifice at the expense of robustness being incorporated into the system? To address these questions, we first identify data heterogeneity as the key difficulty of combining fairness and robustness. Accordingly, we propose a fair and robust framework called H-nobs which can offer certified fairness and robustness through the adoption of two key components, a fairness-promoting objective function and a simple robust aggregation scheme called norm-based screening (NBS). We explain in detail why NBS is the suitable scheme in our algorithm in contrast to other robust aggregation measures. In addition, we derive three convergence theorems for H-nobs in cases of the learning model being nonconvex, convex, and strongly convex respectively, which provide theoretical guarantees for both fairness and robustness. Further, we empirically investigate the influence of the robust mechanism (NBS) on the fairness performance of H-nobs, the very first attempt of such exploration. 
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