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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
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  4. In many low-temperature plasmas (LTPs), the OH radical and temperature represent key properties of plasma reactivity. However, OH and temperature measurements in weakly ionized LTPs are challenging, due to the low concentration and short lifetime of OH and the abrupt temperature rise caused by fast gas heating. To address such issues, this Letter combined cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) with femtosecond (fs) pulses to enable sensitive single-shot broadband measurements of OH and temperature with a time resolution of ∼180 ns in LTPs. Such a combination leveraged several benefits. With the appropriately designed cavity, an absorption gain of ∼66 was achieved, enhancing the actual OH detection limit by ∼55× to the 1011cm-3level (sub-ppm in this work) compared with single-pass absorption. Single-shot measurements were enabled while maintaining a time resolution of ∼180 ns, sufficiently short for detecting OH with a lifetime of ∼100 μs. With the broadband fs laser, ∼34,000 cavity modes were matched with ∼95 modes matched on each CCD pixel bandwidth, such that fs-CEAS became immune to the laser-cavity coupling noise and highly robust across the entire spectral range. Also, the broadband fs laser allowed simultaneous sensing of many absorption features to enable simultaneous multi-parameter measurements with enhanced accuracies.

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  5. This Letter reports a femtosecond ultraviolet laser absorption spectroscopy (fs-UV-LAS) for simultaneous in situ measurements of temperature and species. This fs-UV-LAS technique was demonstrated based on X 2 Π-A 2 Σ + transitions of OH radicals near 308 nm generated in low temperature plasmas and flames. The fs-UV-LAS technique has revealed three major diagnostic benefits. First, a series of absorption features within a spectral bandwidth of ∼3.2 nm near 308 nm were simultaneously measured and then enabled simultaneous multi-parameter measurements with enhanced accuracy. The results show that the temperature and OH concentration could be measured with accuracy enhanced by 29–88% and 58–91%, respectively, compared to those obtained with past two-narrow-line absorption methods. Second, an ultrafast time resolution of ∼120 picoseconds was accomplished for the measurements. Third, due to the large OH X 2 Π-A 2 Σ + transitions in the UV range, a simple single-pass absorption with a 3-cm path length was allowed for measurements in plasmas with low OH number density down to ∼2 × 10 13  cm −3 . Also due to the large OH UV transitions, single-shot fs absorption measurements were accomplished in flames, which was expected to offer more insights into chemically reactive flow dynamics. 
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  6. Analog compute‐in‐memory (CIM) systems are promising candidates for deep neural network (DNN) inference acceleration. However, as the use of DNNs expands, protecting user input privacy has become increasingly important. Herein, a potential security vulnerability is identified wherein an adversary can reconstruct the user's private input data from a power side‐channel attack even without knowledge of the stored DNN model. An attack approach using a generative adversarial network is developed to achieve high‐quality data reconstruction from power leakage measurements. The analyses show that the attack methodology is effective in reconstructing user input data from power leakage of the analog CIM accelerator, even at large noise levels and after countermeasures. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach, an example of CIM inference of U‐Net for brain tumor detection is attacked, and the original magnetic resonance imaging medical images can be successfully reconstructed even at a noise level of 20% standard deviation of the maximum power signal value. This study highlights a potential security vulnerability in emerging analog CIM accelerators and raises awareness of needed safety features to protect user privacy in such systems.

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  7. Flame-retardant and thermal management structures have attracted great attention due to the requirement of high-temperature exposure in industrial, aerospace, and thermal power fields, but the development of protective fire-retardant structures with complex shapes to fit arbitrary surfaces is still challenging. Herein, we reported a rotation-blade casting-assisted 3D printing process to fabricate nacre-inspired structures with exceptional mechanical and flame-retardant properties, and the related fundamental mechanisms are studied. 3-(Trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA) modified boron nitride nanoplatelets (BNs) were aligned by rotation-blade casting during the 3D printing process to build the “brick and mortar” architecture. The 3D printed structures are more lightweight, while having higher fracture toughness than the natural nacre, which is attributed to the crack deflection, aligned BN (a-BNs) bridging, and pull-outs reinforced structures by the covalent bonding between TMSPMA grafted a-BNs and polymer matrix. Thermal conductivity is enhanced by 25.5 times compared with pure polymer and 5.8 times of anisotropy due to the interconnection of a-BNs. 3D printed heat-exchange structures with vertically aligned BNs in complex shapes were demonstrated for efficient thermal control of high-power light-emitting diodes. 3D printed helmet and armor with a-BNs show exceptional mechanical and fire-retardant properties, demonstrating integrated mechanical and thermal protection. 
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