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  1. SUMMARY Horizontal slowness vector measurements using array techniques have been used to analyse many Earth phenomena from lower mantle heterogeneity to meteorological event location. While providing observations essential for studying much of the Earth, slowness vector analysis is limited by the necessary and subjective visual inspection of observations. Furthermore, it is challenging to determine the uncertainties caused by limitations of array processing such as array geometry, local structure, noise and their effect on slowness vector measurements. To address these issues, we present a method to automatically identify seismic arrivals and measure their slowness vector properties with uncertainty bounds. We do this by bootstrap sampling waveforms, therefore also creating random sub arrays, then use linear beamforming to measure the coherent power at a range of slowness vectors. For each bootstrap sample, we take the top N peaks from each power distribution as the slowness vectors of possible arrivals. The slowness vectors of all bootstrap samples are gathered and the clustering algorithm DBSCAN (Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise) is used to identify arrivals as clusters of slowness vectors. The mean of slowness vectors in each cluster gives the slowness vector measurement for that arrival and the distribution of slowness vectorsmore »in each cluster gives the uncertainty estimate. We tuned the parameters of DBSCAN using a data set of 2489 SKS and SKKS observations at a range of frequency bands from 0.1 to 1 Hz. We then present examples at higher frequencies (0.5–2.0 Hz) than the tuning data set, identifying PKP precursors, and lower frequency by identifying multipathing in surface waves (0.04–0.06 Hz). While we use a linear beamforming process, this method can be implemented with any beamforming process such as cross correlation beamforming or phase weighted stacking. This method allows for much larger data sets to be analysed without visual inspection of data. Phenomena such as multipathing, reflections or scattering can be identified automatically in body or surface waves and their properties analysed with uncertainties.« less
  2. Long-range transport of biogenic emissions from the coast of Antarctica, precipitation scavenging, and cloud processing are the main processes that influence the observed variability in Southern Ocean (SO) marine boundary layer (MBL) condensation nuclei (CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations during the austral summer. Airborne particle measurements on the HIAPER GV from north-south transects between Hobart, Tasmania and 62°S during the Southern Ocean Clouds, Radiation Aerosol Transport Experimental Study (SOCRATES) were separated into four regimes comprising combinations of high and low concentrations of CCN and CN. In 5-day HYSPLIT back trajectories, air parcels with elevated CCN concentrations were almost always shown to have crossed the Antarctic coast, a location with elevated phytoplankton emissions relative to the rest of the SO in the region south of Australia. The presence of high CCN concentrations was also consistent with high cloud fractions over their trajectory, suggesting there was substantial growth of biogenically formed particles through cloud processing. Cases with low cloud fraction, due to the presence of cumulus clouds, had high CN concentrations, consistent with previously reported new particle formation in cumulus outflow regions. Measurements associated with elevated precipitation during the previous 1.5-days of their trajectory had low CCN concentrations indicating CCNmore »were effectively scavenged by precipitation. A coarse-mode fitting algorithm was used to determine the primary marine aerosol (PMA) contribution which accounted for < 20% of CCN (at 0.3% supersaturation) and cloud droplet number concentrations. Vertical profiles of CN and large particle concentrations (Dp > 0.07µm) indicated that particle formation occurs more frequently above the MBL; however, the growth of recently formed particles typically occurs in the MBL, consistent with cloud processing and the condensation of volatile compound oxidation products.« less
  3. Stratocumulus clouds over the Southern Ocean have fewer droplets and are more likely to exist in the predominately supercooled phase than clouds at similar temperatures over northern oceans. One likely reason is that this region has few continental and anthropogenic sources of cloud-nucleating particles that can form droplets and ice. In this work, we present an overview of aerosol particle types over the Southern Ocean, including new measurements made below, in and above clouds in this region. These measurements and others indicate that biogenic sulfur-based particles >0.1 μm diameter contribute the majority of cloud condensation nuclei number concentrations in summer. Ice nucleating particles tend to have more organic components, likely from sea-spray. Both types of cloud nucleating particles may increase in a warming climate likely to have less sea ice, more phytoplankton activity, and stronger winds over the Southern Ocean near Antarctica. Taken together, clouds over the Southern Ocean may become more reflective and partially counter the region’s expected albedo decrease due to diminishing sea ice. However, detailed modeling studies are needed to test this hypothesis due to the complexity of ocean-cloud-climate feedbacks in the region.
  4. Memristive devices are promising candidates to emulate biological computing. However, the typical switching voltages (0.2-2 V) in previously described devices are much higher than the amplitude in biological counterparts. Here we demonstrate a type of diffusive memristor, fabricated from the protein nanowires harvested from the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, that functions at the biological voltages of 40-100 mV. Memristive function at biological voltages is possible because the protein nanowires catalyze metallization. Artificial neurons built from these memristors not only function at biological action potentials (e.g., 100 mV, 1 ms) but also exhibit temporal integration close to that in biological neurons. The potential of using the memristor to directly process biosensing signals is also demonstrated.
  5. This paper describes the creation of a virtual, interactive professional development course to build the capacity of community college faculty to recruit and retain women and underrepresented minorities in computing programs. The project was designed in response to community college faculty reporting need for practical methods to broaden participation in their programs and their feelings of isolation from like-minded faculty. The 12-session prototype has been piloted with eight community college faculty. The finalized PD will be available as free, standalone web-based modules. The course includes instruction on research-based practices for recruiting and retaining women and underrepresented minorities in computing. Evaluation mechanisms are developed to assess the impacts of the PD on faculty attitudes and teaching practices, and the effect of changed practices on introductory computing students’ engagement and persistence. Here we report preliminary findings from interviews. The project outputs will include polished online content modules, validated student survey instruments, a classroom observation protocol, and student and faculty interview instruments.
  6. Abstract Quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong force, describes interactions of coloured quarks and gluons and the formation of hadronic matter. Conventional hadronic matter consists of baryons and mesons made of three quarks and quark-antiquark pairs, respectively. Particles with an alternative quark content are known as exotic states. Here a study is reported of an exotic narrow state in the D 0 D 0 π + mass spectrum just below the D *+ D 0 mass threshold produced in proton-proton collisions collected with the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The state is consistent with the ground isoscalar $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + tetraquark with a quark content of $${{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}\overline{{{{{{\rm{u}}}}}}}\overline{{{{{{\rm{d}}}}}}}$$ c c u ¯ d ¯ and spin-parity quantum numbers J P  = 1 + . Study of the DD mass spectra disfavours interpretation of the resonance as the isovector state. The decay structure via intermediate off-shell D *+ mesons is consistent with the observed D 0 π + mass distribution. To analyse the mass of the resonance and its coupling to the D * D system, a dedicated model is developed under the assumption of an isoscalar axial-vector $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + state decaying to the Dmore »* D channel. Using this model, resonance parameters including the pole position, scattering length, effective range and compositeness are determined to reveal important information about the nature of the $${{{{{{\rm{T}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}{{{{{\rm{c}}}}}}}^{+}$$ T c c + state. In addition, an unexpected dependence of the production rate on track multiplicity is observed.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  7. Abstract Conventional, hadronic matter consists of baryons and mesons made of three quarks and a quark–antiquark pair, respectively 1,2 . Here, we report the observation of a hadronic state containing four quarks in the Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment. This so-called tetraquark contains two charm quarks, a $$\overline{{{{{u}}}}}$$ u ¯ and a $$\overline{{{{{d}}}}}$$ d ¯ quark. This exotic state has a mass of approximately 3,875 MeV and manifests as a narrow peak in the mass spectrum of D 0 D 0 π + mesons just below the D *+ D 0 mass threshold. The near-threshold mass together with the narrow width reveals the resonance nature of the state.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023