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Creators/Authors contains: "Warfel, Katherine F."

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  1. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Cell-free gene expression (CFE) systems from crude cellular extracts have attracted much attention for biomanufacturing and synthetic biology. However, activating membrane-dependent functionality of cell-derived vesicles in bacterial CFE systems has been limited. Here, we address this limitation by characterizing native membrane vesicles in Escherichia coli- based CFE extracts and describing methods to enrich vesicles with heterologous, membrane-bound machinery. As a model, we focus on bacterial glycoengineering. We first use multiple, orthogonal techniques to characterize vesicles and show how extract processing methods can be used to increase concentrations of membrane vesicles in CFE systems. Then, we show that extracts enriched in vesicle number also display enhanced concentrations of heterologous membrane protein cargo. Finally, we apply our methods to enrich membrane-bound oligosaccharyltransferases and lipid-linked oligosaccharides for improving cell-free N- linked and O -linked glycoprotein synthesis. We anticipate that these methods will facilitate on-demand glycoprotein production and enable new CFE systems with membrane-associated activities.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. Background Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) diagnostic tests for SARS-CoV-2 are the cornerstone of the global testing infrastructure. However, these tests require cold-chain shipping to distribute, and the labor of skilled technicians to assemble reactions and interpret the results. Strategies to reduce shipping and labor costs at the point-of-care could aid in diagnostic testing scale-up and response to the COVID-19 outbreak, as well as in future outbreaks. Methods In this study we test both lab-developed and commercial SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic RT-qPCR mixes for the ability to be stabilized against elevated temperature by lyophilization. Fully assembled reactions were lyophilized and stored for up to a month at ambient or elevated temperature and were subsequently assayed for their ability to detect dilutions of synthetic SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Results Of the mixes tested, we show that one commercial mix can maintain activity and sensitivity after storage for at least 30 days at ambient temperature after lyophilization. We also demonstrate that lyoprotectants such as disaccharides can stabilize freeze-dried diagnostic reactions against elevated temperatures (up to 50°C) for at least 30 days. Conclusion We anticipate that the incorporation of these methods into SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing will improve testing pipelines by reducing labor at the testing facilitymore »and eliminating the need for cold-chain shipping.« less
  3. Conjugate vaccines are among the most effective methods for preventing bacterial infections. However, existing manufacturing approaches limit access to conjugate vaccines due to centralized production and cold chain distribution requirements. To address these limitations, we developed a modular technology for in vitro conjugate vaccine expression (iVAX) in portable, freeze-dried lysates from detoxified, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli. Upon rehydration, iVAX reactions synthesize clinically relevant doses of conjugate vaccines against diverse bacterial pathogens in 1 hour. We show that iVAX-synthesized vaccines against Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A) strain Schu S4 protected mice from lethal intranasal F. tularensis challenge. The iVAX platform promises to accelerate development of new conjugate vaccines with increased access through refrigeration-independent distribution and portable production.