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Creators/Authors contains: "Warziniack, Travis"

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  1. Abstract

    Climate change, population growth, urbanization, and interactions thereof may alter the water supply‐demand balance and lead to shifts in water shortage characteristics at different timescales. This study proposes an approach to improve the vulnerability assessments of U.S. river basins to the shortage at the interannual to decadal timescales by characterizing shifts in intensity, duration, and frequency (IDF) of water shortage events from current (1986–2015) to future (2070–2099) periods. The results indicate that under the driest future climate projection, the frequency and intensity of over‐year (D > 12 months) events at the monthly scale and decadal (D > 10 years) events at the annual scale tend to increase in the Southwest, Southern, middle Great Plain, and Great Lakes regions. Conversely, the frequency of interannual (D < 12 months) events at the monthly scale and annual (D > 1 year) and multi‐year (D > 3 years) events at the annual scale is likely to increase in the West Coast regions. Besides, river basins with a higher rate of aridification are likely to experience more frequent over‐year (D > 12 months) events, while river basins with a decrease in aridification were projected to undergo more frequent interannual (D < 12 months) events due to an increase in the variability of extreme weather anomalies within a year. The findings of this study provide new insights to understand and characterize vulnerability to water shortage under current and future water supply‐demand conditions and can inform the development of effective mitigation and/or adaptation strategies.

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  2. Abstract

    This study investigates municipal water use patterns across the Contiguous United States (CONUS). The objectives of this study are to explore temporal trends in water use, improve characterization of indoor and outdoor uses, and improve characterization of commercial, industrial, and institutional (CII) water use in cities across the CONUS. A comprehensive survey was conducted to compile monthly water use data from 126 municipalities for the period 2005–2017 with specific information about residential and CII water use categories. Changes in liters per capita per day and the CII to Residential water use ratio were related to climatic, urban‐geologic and socio‐economic variables. Results indicate an overall decreasing trend in municipal water uses with higher reductions achieved in residential sector. Both residential and CII water use exhibit high seasonality over an average year. The CII to Residential ratio increases with city population and is highest in cities in the Northeast Census region. Cities in South and West Census regions have high municipal water uses and highest reductions in annual per capita‐day water use. Cities in arid climate regions have the highest water uses, compared to other cities, due to landscape irrigation. April precipitation, annual vapor pressure deficit, number of employees in the manufacturing (or, other services except public administration) sector, total percentage of houses built before 1950 and total percentage of single‐family houses explain much of the variation in CII to Residential water use ratio across the CONUS. This study guides improved characterization of municipal water uses and water demand management strategies.

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