skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Washburne, Alex D."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Sampling reservoir hosts over time and space is critical to detect epizootics, predict spillover and design interventions. However, because sampling is logistically difficult and expensive, researchers rarely perform spatio-temporal sampling of many reservoir hosts. Bats are reservoirs of many virulent zoonotic pathogens such as filoviruses and henipaviruses, yet the highly mobile nature of these animals has limited optimal sampling of bat populations. To quantify the frequency of temporal sampling and to characterize the geographical scope of bat virus research, we here collated data on filovirus and henipavirus prevalence and seroprevalence in wild bats. We used a phylogenetically controlled meta-analysis to next assess temporal and spatial variation in bat virus detection estimates. Our analysis shows that only one in four bat virus studies report data longitudinally, that sampling efforts cluster geographically (e.g. filovirus data are available across much of Africa and Asia but are absent from Latin America and Oceania), and that sampling designs and reporting practices may affect some viral detection estimates (e.g. filovirus seroprevalence). Within the limited number of longitudinal bat virus studies, we observed high heterogeneity in viral detection estimates that in turn reflected both spatial and temporal variation. This suggests that spatio-temporal sampling designs are important tomore »understand how zoonotic viruses are maintained and spread within and across wild bat populations, which in turn could help predict and preempt risks of zoonotic viral spillover.« less
  2. Predicting and simplifying which pathogens may spill over from animals to humans is a major priority in infectious disease biology. Many efforts to determine which viruses are at risk of spillover use a subset of viral traits to find trait-based associations with spillover. We adapt a new method—phylofactorization—to identify not traits but lineages of viruses at risk of spilling over. Phylofactorization is used to partition the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses viral taxonomy based on non-human host range of viruses and whether there exists evidence the viruses have infected humans. We identify clades on a range of taxonomic levels with high or low propensities to spillover, thereby simplifying the classification of zoonotic potential of mammalian viruses. Phylofactorization by whether a virus is zoonotic yields many disjoint clades of viruses containing few to no representatives that have spilled over to humans. Phylofactorization by non-human host breadth yields several clades with significantly higher host breadth. We connect the phylogenetic factors above with life-histories of clades, revisit trait-based analyses, and illustrate how cladistic coarse-graining of zoonotic potential can refine trait-based analyses by illuminating clade-specific determinants of spillover risk.