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  1. Photonic funnels have been demonstrated as a flexible platform to confine light to deep subwavelength spatial areas. Here we consider the utility of this platform to provide temporal, as well as spatial, light shaping. 
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  2. The incorporation of dilute concentrations of bismuth into traditional III–V alloys produces significant reductions in bandgap energy presenting unique opportunities in strain and bandgap engineering. However, the disparity between the ideal growth conditions for the host matrix and those required for substitutional bismuth incorporation has caused the material quality of these III–V–Bi alloys to lag behind that of conventional III–V semiconductors. InSb1−xBix, while experimentally underexplored, is a promising candidate for high-quality III–V–Bi alloys due to the relatively similar ideal growth temperatures for InSb and III–Bi materials. By identifying a highly kinetically limited growth regime, we demonstrate the growth of high-quality InSb1−xBix by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) measurements of the alloy's bismuth concentration, coupled with smooth surface morphologies as measured by atomic force microscopy, suggest unity-sticking bismuth incorporation for a range of bismuth concentrations from 0.8% to 1.5% as measured by RBS. In addition, the first photoluminescence was observed from InSb1−xBix and demonstrated wavelength extension up to 7.6 μm at 230 K, with a bismuth-induced bandgap reduction of ∼29 meV/% Bi. Furthermore, we report the temperature dependence of the bandgap of InSb1−xBix and observed behavior consistent with that of a traditional III–V alloy. The results presented highlight the potential of InSb1−xBix as an alternative emerging candidate for accessing the longwave-infrared.

     
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  3. We demonstrate a monolithic all-epitaxial resonant-cavity architecture for long-wave infrared photodetectors with substrate-side illumination. An nBn detector with an ultra-thin (t≈350 nm) absorber layer is integrated into a leaky resonant cavity, formed using semi-transparent highly doped (n++) epitaxial layers, and aligned to the anti-node of the cavity's standing wave. The devices are characterized electrically and optically and demonstrate an external quantum efficiency of ∼25% at T=180 K in an architecture compatible with focal plane array configurations.

     
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  4. There are a range of fundamental challenges associated with scaling optoelectronic devices down to the nano-scale, and the past decades have seen significant research dedicated to the development of sub-diffraction-limit optical devices, often relying on the plasmonic response of metal structures. At the longer wavelengths associated with the mid-infrared, dramatic changes in the optical response of traditional nanophotonic materials, reduced efficiency optoelectronic active regions, and a host of deleterious and/or parasitic effects makes nano-scale optoelectronics at micro-scale wavelengths particularly challenging. In this Perspective, we describe recent work leveraging a class of infrared plasmonic materials, highly doped semiconductors, which not only support sub-diffraction-limit plasmonic modes at long wavelengths, but which can also be integrated into a range of optoelectronic device architectures. We discuss how the wavelength-dependent optical response of these materials can serve a number of different photonic device designs, including dielectric waveguides, epsilon-near-zero dynamic optical devices, cavity-based optoelectronics, and plasmonic device architectures. We present recent results demonstrating that the highly doped semiconductor class of materials offers the opportunity for monolithic, all-epitaxial, device architectures out-performing current state of the art commercial devices, and discuss the perspectives and promise of these materials for infrared nanophotonic optoelectronics.

     
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  6. III–V semiconductor type-II superlattices (T2SLs) are a promising material system with the potential to significantly reduce the dark current of, and thus realize high-performance in, infrared photodetectors at elevated temperatures. However, T2SLs have struggled to meet the performance metrics set by the long-standing infrared detector material of choice, HgCdTe. Recently, epitaxial plasmonic detector architectures have demonstrated T2SL detector performance comparable to HgCdTe in the 77–195 K temperature range. Here, we demonstrate a high operating temperature plasmonic T2SL detector architecture with high-performance operation at temperatures accessible with two-stage thermoelectric coolers. Specifically, we demonstrate long-wave infrared plasmonic detectors operating at temperatures as high as 230 K while maintaining dark currents below the “Rule 07” heuristic. At a detector operating temperature of 230 K, we realize 22.8% external quantum efficiency in a detector absorber only 372 nm thick ([Formula: see text]) with a peak specific detectivity of 2.29 × 109cm Hz1∕2W−1at 9.6  μm, well above commercial detectors at the same operating temperature.

     
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