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Graphs serve as generic tools to encode the underlying relational structure of data. Often this graph is not given, and so the task of inferring it from nodal observations becomes important. Traditional approaches formulate a convex inverse problem with a smoothness promoting objective and rely on iterative methods to obtain a solution. In supervised settings where graph labels are available, one can unroll and truncate these iterations into a deep network that is trained endtoend. Such a network is parameter efficient and inherits inductive bias from the optimization formulation, an appealing aspect for data constrained settings in, e.g., medicine, finance, and the natural sciences. But typically such settings care equally about \textit{uncertainty} over edge predictions, not just point estimates. Here we introduce novel iterations with independently interpretable parameters, i.e., parameters whose values  independent of other parameters' settings  proportionally influence characteristics of the estimated graph, such as edge sparsity. After unrolling these iterations, prior knowledge over such graph characteristics shape prior distributions} over these independently interpretable network parameters to yield a Bayesian neural network (BNN) capable of graph structure learning (GSL) from smooth signal observations. Fast execution and parameter efficiency allow for highfidelity posterior approximation via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and thus uncertainty quantification on edge predictions. Informative priors unlock modeling tools from Bayesian statistics like prior predictive checks. Synthetic and real data experiments corroborate this model's ability to provide wellcalibrated estimates of uncertainty, in test cases that include unveiling economic sector modular structure from S&P500 data and recovering pairwise digit similarities from MNIST images. Overall, this framework enables GSL in modestscale applications where uncertainty on the data structure is paramountmore » « lessFree, publiclyaccessible full text available September 1, 2025

Machine learning frameworks such as graph neural networks typically rely on a given, fixed graph to exploit relational inductive biases and thus effectively learn from network data. However, when said graphs are (partially) unobserved, noisy, or dynamic, the problem of inferring graph structure from data becomes relevant. In this paper, we postulate a graph convolutional relationship between the observed and latent graphs, and formulate the graph structure learning task as a network inverse (deconvolution) problem. In lieu of eigendecompositionbased spectral methods or iterative optimization solutions, we unroll and truncate proximal gradient iterations to arrive at a parameterized neural network architecture that we call a Graph Deconvolution Network (GDN). GDNs can learn a distribution of graphs in a supervised fashion, perform link prediction or edgeweight regression tasks by adapting the loss function, and they are inherently inductive as well as node permutation equivariant. We corroborate GDNâ€™s superior graph learning performance and its generalization to larger graphs using synthetic data in supervised settings. Moreover, we demonstrate the robustness and representation power of GDNs on real world neuroimaging and social network datasets.more » « less