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  1. A Novel Community Engaged System Thinking Approach to Controlling Nutrient Pollution in the Belize Cayes Nutrient pollution (anthropogenic discharge of nitrogen and phosphate) is a major concern in many parts of the world. Excess nutrient discharge into nutrient limited waters can cause toxic algal blooms that lead to hypoxic zones, fish die-offs, and overgrowth on reefs. This can lead to coral reefs being more vulnerable to global warming and ocean acidification. For coastal communities that depend of fishing and tourism for their livelihood, and for reefs to protect coastlines, these effects can be devastating. A major source of nutrient input into the aquatic environment is poorly treated wastewater from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems (OWTS). When properly sited, built, and maintained conventional OWTS are great for removing fats, grease, biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solids (TSS), but they are rarely designed for nutrient removal and commonly have high nutrient levels in their effluent. This study investigates the factors that influence the performance of OWTS, the Caribbean region’s most common type of treatment technology, in the Belizean Cayes where salt water flushing is common. Using mass-balance-based models for existing and proposed OWTS to predict the system’s performance under various conditions,more »along with OWTS’ owner, maintainer, and user input, a novel community engaged system thinking approach to controlling nutrient pollution will be developed. Key model performance metrics are concentrations of nitrogen species, BOD, and TSS in the effluent. To demonstrate the model’s utility, a sensitivity analysis was performed for case studies in Belize, estimating the impact on nutrient removal efficiency when changes are made to variables such as number of daily users, idle periods, tank number and volume, oxygen concentration and recirculation. For the systems considered here, strategies such as aeration, increased biodigester tank size, addition of aerobic and anoxic biodigesters, recirculation, addition of a carbon source, ion exchange media is predicted to decrease the effluent nitrogen concentration, and integration of vegetation for nutrient uptake both on land and in the nearshore environment. In a previous case, the addition of an aerator was predicted to decrease the effluent ammonium concentration by 13%, whereas increasing the biodigester tank size would only decrease the effluent ammonium concentration by ~7%. Model results are shared with system manufacturers and operators to prioritize possible modifications, thereby optimizing the use of finite resources, namely time and money, for costly trial-and-error improvement efforts.« less
  2. Poster on using R Shiny Apps within Open OnDemand presented at the PEARC 19 conference
  3. Abstract The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Abstract The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed to meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  7. Abstract The energy response of the ATLAS calorimeter is measured for single charged pions with transverse momentum in the range $$10more »response in the hadronic calorimeter are also compared between data and simulation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  8. A bstract Searches are conducted for new spin-0 or spin-1 bosons using events where a Higgs boson with mass 125 GeV decays into four leptons ( ℓ = e , μ ). This decay is presumed to occur via an intermediate state which contains two on-shell, promptly decaying bosons: H → XX/ZX → 4 ℓ , where the new boson X has a mass between 1 and 60 GeV. The search uses pp collision data collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC with an integrated luminosity of 139 fb − 1 at a centre-of-mass energy $$ \sqrt{s} $$ s = 13 TeV. The data are found to be consistent with Standard Model expectations. Limits are set on fiducial cross sections and on the branching ratio of the Higgs boson to decay into XX/ZX , improving those from previous publications by a factor between two and four. Limits are also set on mixing parameters relevant in extensions of the Standard Model containing a dark sector where X is interpreted to be a dark boson.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  9. Abstract This paper presents a measurement of the electroweak production of two jets in association with a $$Z\gamma $$ Z γ pair, with the Z boson decaying into two neutrinos. It also presents a search for invisible or partially invisible decays of a Higgs boson with a mass of 125  $$\text {GeV}$$ GeV produced through vector-boson fusion with a photon in the final state. These results use data from LHC proton–proton collisions at $$\sqrt{s}$$ s = 13  $$\text {TeV}$$ TeV collected with the ATLAS detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 139  $$\hbox {fb}^{-1}$$ fb - 1 . The event signature, shared by all benchmark processes considered for the measurements and searches, is characterized by a significant amount of unbalanced transverse momentum and a photon in the final state, in addition to a pair of forward jets. Electroweak $$Z\gamma $$ Z γ production in association with two jets is observed in this final state with a significance of 5.2 (5.1 expected) standard deviations. The measured fiducial cross-section for this process is $$1.31\pm 0.29$$ 1.31 ± 0.29  fb. An observed (expected) upper limit of 0.37 ( $$0.34^{+0.15}_{-0.10}$$ 0 . 34 - 0.10 + 0.15 ) at 95% confidence level ismore »set on the branching ratio of a 125  $$\text {GeV}$$ GeV Higgs boson to invisible particles, assuming the Standard Model production cross-section. The signature is also interpreted in the context of decays of a Higgs boson into a photon and a dark photon. An observed (expected) 95% CL upper limit on the branching ratio for this decay is set at 0.018 ( $$0.017^{+0.007}_{-0.005}$$ 0 . 017 - 0.005 + 0.007 ), assuming the Standard Model production cross-section for a 125  $$\text {GeV}$$ GeV Higgs boson.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  10. Abstract During LHC Run 2 (2015–2018) the ATLAS Level-1 topological trigger allowed efficient data-taking by the ATLAS experiment at luminosities up to 2.1 $$\times $$ × 10 $$^{34}$$ 34  cm $$^{-2}$$ - 2 s $$^{-1}$$ - 1 , which exceeds the design value by a factor of two. The system was installed in 2016 and operated in 2017 and 2018. It uses Field Programmable Gate Array processors to select interesting events by placing kinematic and angular requirements on electromagnetic clusters, jets, $$\tau $$ τ -leptons, muons and the missing transverse energy. It allowed to significantly improve the background event rejection and signal event acceptance, in particular for Higgs and B -physics processes.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023