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Creators/Authors contains: "Weber, Matthew"

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  1. Abstract

    The future of work will be measured. The increasing and widespread adoption of analytics, the use of digital inputs and outputs to inform organizational decision making, makes the communication of data central to organizing. This article applies and extends signaling theory to provide a framework for the study of analytics as communication. We report three cases that offer examples of dubious, selective, and ambiguous signaling in the activities of workers seeking to shape the meaning of data within the practice of analytics. The analysis casts the future of work as a game of strategic moves between organizations, seeking to measure behaviors and quantify the performance of work, and workers, altering their behavioral signaling to meet situated goals. The framework developed offers a guide for future examinations of the asymmetric relationship between management and workers as organizations adopt metrics to monitor and evaluate work.

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  2. Pandey, R. (Ed.)
    Euclidean geometry and Newtonian time with floating point numbers are common computational models of the physical world. However, to achieve the kind of cyber-physical collaboration that arises in the IoT, such a literal representation of space and time may not be the best choice. In this chapter we survey location models from robotics, the internet, cyber-physical systems, and philosophy. The diversity in these models is justified by differing application demands and conceptualizations of space (spatial ontologies). To facilitate interoperability of spatial knowledge across representations,we propose a logical frameworkwherein a spatial ontology is defined as a model-theoretic structure. The logic language induced from a collection of such structures may be used to formally describe location in the IoT via semantic localization. Space-aware IoT services gain advantages for privacy and interoperability when they are designed for the most abstract spatial-ontologies as possible.We finish the chapter with definitions for open ontologies and logical inference. 
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  3. We discuss a novel approach for constructing deterministic reactive systems that evolves around a temporal model which incorporates a multiplicity of timelines. This model is central to LINGUA FRANCA (LF), a polyglot coordination language and compiler toolchain we are developing for the definition and composition of concurrent components called Reactors, which are objects that react to and emit discrete events. What sets LF apart from other languages that treat time as a first-class citizen is that it confronts the issue that in any reactive system there are at least two distinct timelines involved; a logical one and a physical one-and possibly multiple of each kind. LF provides a mechanism for relating events across timelines, and guarantees deterministic program behavior under quantifiable assumptions. 
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  4. Connected cars have the potential to transform a vehicle from a transportation platform to a platform for integrating humans with a city. To that end we introduce semantic accessors (actor based local proxies for remote services) as a novel, and powerful discovery mechanism for connected vehicles that bridges the domains of Internet of Things (IoT) composition frameworks and the semantic web of things. The primary components of this approach include a local semantic repository used for maintaining the vehicle’s perspective of its real-world context, accessors for querying and dynamically updating the repository to match evolving vehicular context information, accessors for services (such as parking) linked to a service ontology, and a swarmlet controller responsible for managing the above in accordance with user input. We demonstrate this semantic accessor architecture with a prototype Dashboard display that downloads accessors for new services as they become available and dynamically renders their self-described user interface components. 
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  5. Abstract

    Adult psychiatric disorders characterized by cognitive deficits reliant on prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine are promoted by teenage bullying. Similarly, male Sprague‐Dawley rats exposed to social defeat in mid‐adolescence (P35‐39) show impaired working memory in adulthood (P56‐70), along with decreased medialPFC(mPFC) dopamine activity that results in part from increased dopamine transporter‐mediated clearance. Here, we determined if dopamine synthesis and D2 autoreceptor‐mediated inhibition of dopamine release in the adultmPFCare also enhanced by adolescent defeat to contribute to later dopamine hypofunction. Control and previously defeated rats did not differ in eitherDOPAaccumulation following amino acid decarboxylase inhibition (NSD‐1015 100 mg/kg ip.) or total/phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression, suggesting dopamine synthesis in the adultmPFCis not altered by adolescent defeat. However, exposure to adolescent defeat caused greater decreases in extracellular dopamine release (measured using in vivo chronoamperometry) in the adultmPFCupon local infusion of the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole (3nM), implying greater D2 autoreceptor function. Equally enhanced D2 autoreceptor‐mediated inhibition of dopamine release is seen in the adolescent (P40 or P49)mPFC, which declines in control rats by adulthood. However, this developmental decrease in autoreceptor function is absent following adolescent defeat, suggesting retention of an adolescent‐like phenotype into adulthood. Current and previous findings indicate adolescent defeat decreases extracellular dopamine availability in the adultmPFCvia both enhanced inhibition of dopamine release and increased dopamine clearance, which may be viable targets for improving treatment of cognitive deficits seen in neuropsychiatric disorders promoted by adolescent stress.

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