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  4. Structured Abstract Objectives

    To investigate the ploughing mechanism associated with tractional force formation on the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc surface.

    Setting and Sample Population

    Ten leftTMJdiscs were harvested from 6‐ to 8‐month‐old male Yorkshire pigs.

    Materials and Methods

    Confined compression tests characterized mechanicalTMJdisc properties, which were incorporated into a biphasic finite element model (FEM). TheFEMwas established to investigate load carriage within the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the ploughing mechanism during tractional force formation by simulating previous in vitro plough experiments.


    Biphasic mechanical properties were determined in fiveTMJdisc regions (average±standard deviation for aggregate modulus: 0.077±0.040MPa; hydraulic permeability: 0.88±0.37×10−3mm4/Ns).FEsimulation results demonstrated that interstitial fluid pressurization is a dominant loading support mechanism in theTMJdisc. Increased contact load and duration led to increased solidECMstrain and stress within, and increased ploughing force on the surface of the disc.


    Sustained mechanical loading may play a role in load carriage within theECMand ploughing force formation during stress‐field translation at the condyle–disc interface. This study further elucidated the mechanism of ploughing on tractional force formation and provided a baseline for future analysis ofTMJmechanics, cartilage fatigue and earlyTMJdegeneration.

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