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  1. Abstract

    We present rest-frame optical emission-line flux ratio measurements for fivez> 5 galaxies observed by the James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) in the SMACS 0723 Early Release Observations. We add several quality-control and post-processing steps to the NIRSpec pipeline reduction products in order to ensure reliablerelativeflux calibration of emission lines that are closely separated in wavelength, despite the uncertainabsolutespectrophotometry of the current version of the reductions. Compared toz∼ 3 galaxies in the literature, thez> 5 galaxies have similar [Oiii]λ5008/Hβratios, similar [Oiii]λ4364/Hγratios, and higher (∼0.5 dex) [NeIII]λ3870/[OII]λ3728 ratios. We compare the observations to MAPPINGS V photoionization models and find that the measured [NeIII]λ3870/[OII]λ3728, [Oiii]λ4364/Hγ, and [Oiii]λ5008/Hβemission-line ratios are consistent with an interstellar medium (ISM) that has very high ionization (log(Q)89, units of cm s−1), low metallicity (Z/Z≲ 0.2), and very high pressure (log(P/k)89, units of cm−3). The combination of [Oiii]λ4364/Hγand [Oiii]λ(4960 + 5008)/Hβline ratios indicate very high electron temperatures of4.1<log(Te/K)<4.4, further implying metallicities ofZ/Z≲ 0.2 with the application of low-redshift calibrations for “Te-based” metallicities. These observations represent a tantalizing new view of the physical conditions of the ISM in galaxies atmore »cosmic dawn.

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  2. ABSTRACT We present initial results from the Cosmic Ultraviolet Baryon Survey (CUBS). CUBS is designed to map diffuse baryonic structures at redshift z ≲ 1 using absorption-line spectroscopy of 15 UV-bright QSOs with matching deep galaxy survey data. CUBS QSOs are selected based on their NUV brightness to avoid biases against the presence of intervening Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at zabs < 1. We report five new LLSs of $\log \, N({\mathrm{ H} \,{\small I}})/{{\rm cm^{-2}}}\gtrsim 17.2$ over a total redshift survey path-length of $\Delta \, z_{\mathrm{ LL}}=9.3$, and a number density of $n(z)=0.43_{-0.18}^{+0.26}$. Considering all absorbers with $\log \, N({{\mathrm{ H} \,{\small I}}})/{{\rm cm^{-2}}}\gt 16.5$ leads to $n(z)=1.08_{-0.25}^{+0.31}$ at zabs < 1. All LLSs exhibit a multicomponent structure and associated metal transitions from multiple ionization states such as C ii, C iii, Mg ii, Si ii, Si iii, and O vi absorption. Differential chemical enrichment levels as well as ionization states are directly observed across individual components in three LLSs. We present deep galaxy survey data obtained using the VLT-MUSE integral field spectrograph and the Magellan Telescopes, reaching sensitivities necessary for detecting galaxies fainter than $0.1\, L_*$ at d ≲ 300 physical kpc (pkpc) in all five fields. A diverse range of galaxy properties ismore »seen around these LLSs, from a low-mass dwarf galaxy pair, a co-rotating gaseous halo/disc, a star-forming galaxy, a massive quiescent galaxy, to a galaxy group. The closest galaxies have projected distances ranging from d = 15 to 72 pkpc and intrinsic luminosities from ${\approx} 0.01\, L_*$ to ${\approx} 3\, L_*$. Our study shows that LLSs originate in a variety of galaxy environments and trace gaseous structures with a broad range of metallicities.« less