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  1. This paper investigates the steady axisymmetric structure of the cold boundary-layer flow surrounding fire whirls developing over localized fuel sources lying on a horizontal surface. The inviscid swirling motion found outside the boundary layer, driven by the entrainment of the buoyant turbulent plume of hot combustion products that develops above the fire, is described by an irrotational solution, obtained by combining Taylor's self-similar solution for the motion in the axial plane with the azimuthal motion induced by a line vortex of circulation $2 {\rm \pi}\Gamma$ . The development of the boundary layer from a prescribed radial location is determined bymore »numerical integration for different swirl levels, measured by the value of the radial-to-azimuthal velocity ratio $\sigma$ at the initial radial location. As in the case $\sigma =0$ , treated in the seminal boundary-layer analysis of Burggraf et al. ( Phys. Fluids , vol. 14, 1971, pp. 1821–1833), the pressure gradient associated with the centripetal acceleration of the inviscid flow is seen to generate a pronounced radial inflow. Specific attention is given to the terminal shape of the boundary-layer velocity near the axis, which displays a three-layered structure that is described by matched asymptotic expansions. The resulting composite expansion, dependent on the level of ambient swirl through the parameter $\sigma$ , is employed as boundary condition to describe the deflection of the boundary-layer flow near the axis to form a vertical swirl jet. Numerical solutions of the resulting non-slender collision region for different values of $\sigma$ are presented both for inviscid flow and for viscous flow with moderately large values of the controlling Reynolds number $\Gamma /\nu$ . The velocity description provided is useful in mathematical formulations of localized fire-whirl flows, providing consistent boundary conditions accounting for the ambient swirl level.« less
  2. Context. Solar Orbiter, the new-generation mission dedicated to solar and heliospheric exploration, was successfully launched on February 10, 2020, 04:03 UTC from Cape Canaveral. During its first perihelion passage in June 2020, two successive interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), propagating along the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), impacted the spacecraft. Aims. This paper addresses the investigation of the ICMEs encountered by Solar Orbiter on June 7−8, 2020, from both an observational and a modeling perspective. The aim is to provide a full description of those events, their mutual interaction, and their coupling with the ambient solar wind and the HCS. Methods.more »Data acquired by the MAG magnetometer, the Energetic Particle Detector suite, and the Radio and Plasma Waves instrument are used to provide information on the ICMEs’ magnetic topology configuration, their magnetic connectivity to the Sun, and insights into the heliospheric plasma environment where they travel, respectively. On the modeling side, the Heliospheric Upwind eXtrapolation model, the 3D COronal Rope Ejection technique, and the EUropean Heliospheric FORecasting Information Asset (EUHFORIA) tool are used to complement Solar Orbiter observations of the ambient solar wind and ICMEs, and to simulate the evolution and interaction of the ejecta in the inner heliosphere, respectively. Results. Both data analysis and numerical simulations indicate that the passage of two distinct, dynamically and magnetically interacting (via magnetic reconnection processes) ICMEs at Solar Orbiter is a possible scenario, supported by the numerous similarities between EUHFORIA time series at Solar Orbiter and Solar Orbiter data. Conclusions. The combination of in situ measurements and numerical simulations (together with remote sensing observations of the corona and inner heliosphere) will significantly lead to a deeper understanding of the physical processes occurring during the CME-CME interaction.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  3. ABSTRACT We present Gemini-S and Spitzer-IRAC optical-through-near-IR observations in the field of the SPT2349-56 proto-cluster at z = 4.3. We detect optical/IR counterparts for only 9 of the 14 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) previously identified by ALMA in the core of SPT2349-56. In addition, we detect four z ∼ 4 Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) in the 30 arcsec-diameter region surrounding this proto-cluster core. Three of the four LBGs are new systems, while one appears to be a counterpart of one of the nine observed SMGs. We identify a candidate brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) with a stellar mass of $(3.2^{+2.3}_{-1.4})\times 10^{11}$ M⊙. The stellar massesmore »of the eight other SMGs place them on, above, and below the main sequence of star formation at z ≈ 4.5. The cumulative stellar mass for the SPT2349-56 core is at least (12.2 ± 2.8) × 1011 M⊙, a sizeable fraction of the stellar mass in local BCGs, and close to the universal baryon fraction (0.19) relative to the virial mass of the core (1013 M⊙). As all 14 of these SMGs are destined to quickly merge, we conclude that the proto-cluster core has already developed a significant stellar mass at this early stage, comparable to z = 1 BCGs. Importantly, we also find that the SPT2349-56 core structure would be difficult to uncover in optical surveys, with none of the ALMA sources being easily identifiable or constrained through g, r, and i colour selection in deep optical surveys and only a modest overdensity of LBGs over the more extended structure. SPT2349-56 therefore represents a truly dust-obscured phase of a massive cluster core under formation.« less
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  5. ABSTRACT The current generation of (sub)mm-telescopes has allowed molecular line emission to become a major tool for studying the physical, kinematic, and chemical properties of extragalactic systems, yet exploiting these observations requires a detailed understanding of where emission lines originate within the Milky Way. In this paper, we present 60 arcsec (∼3 pc) resolution observations of many 3 mm band molecular lines across a large map of the W49 massive star-forming region (∼100 pc × 100 pc at 11 kpc), which were taken as part of the ‘LEGO’ IRAM-30m large project. We find that the spatial extent or brightness of the molecular line transitions aremore »not well correlated with their critical densities, highlighting abundance and optical depth must be considered when estimating line emission characteristics. We explore how the total emission and emission efficiency (i.e. line brightness per H2 column density) of the line emission vary as a function of molecular hydrogen column density and dust temperature. We find that there is not a single region of this parameter space responsible for the brightest and most efficiently emitting gas for all species. For example, we find that the HCN transition shows high emission efficiency at high column density (1022 cm−2) and moderate temperatures (35 K), whilst e.g. N2H+ emits most efficiently towards lower temperatures (1022 cm−2; <20 K). We determine $X_{\mathrm{CO} (1-0)} \sim 0.3 \times 10^{20} \, \mathrm{cm^{-2}\, (K\, km\, s^{-1})^{-1}}$, and $\alpha _{\mathrm{HCN} (1-0)} \sim 30\, \mathrm{M_\odot \, (K\, km\, s^{-1}\, pc^2)^{-1}}$, which both differ significantly from the commonly adopted values. In all, these results suggest caution should be taken when interpreting molecular line emission.« less
  6. Context. With the advent of space-based asteroseismology, determining accurate properties of red-giant stars using their observed oscillations has become the focus of many investigations due to their implications in a variety of fields in astrophysics. Stellar models are fundamental in predicting quantities such as stellar age, and their reliability critically depends on the numerical implementation of the physics at play in this evolutionary phase. Aims. We introduce the Aarhus red giants challenge, a series of detailed comparisons between widely used stellar evolution and oscillation codes that aim to establish the minimum level of uncertainties in properties of red giants arisingmore »solely from numerical implementations. We present the first set of results focusing on stellar evolution tracks and structures in the red-giant-branch (RGB) phase. Methods. Using nine state-of-the-art stellar evolution codes, we defined a set of input physics and physical constants for our calculations and calibrated the convective efficiency to a specific point on the main sequence. We produced evolutionary tracks and stellar structure models at a fixed radius along the red-giant branch for masses of 1.0  M ⊙ , 1.5  M ⊙ , 2.0  M ⊙ , and 2.5  M ⊙ , and compared the predicted stellar properties. Results. Once models have been calibrated on the main sequence, we find a residual spread in the predicted effective temperatures across all codes of ∼20 K at solar radius and ∼30–40 K in the RGB regardless of the considered stellar mass. The predicted ages show variations of 2–5% (increasing with stellar mass), which we attribute to differences in the numerical implementation of energy generation. The luminosity of the RGB-bump shows a spread of about 10% for the considered codes, which translates into magnitude differences of ∼0.1 mag in the optical V -band. We also compare the predicted [C/N] abundance ratio and find a spread of 0.1 dex or more for all considered masses. Conclusions. Our comparisons show that differences at the level of a few percent still remain in evolutionary calculations of red giants branch stars despite the use of the same input physics. These are mostly due to differences in the energy generation routines and interpolation across opacities, and they call for further investigation on these matters in the context of using properties of red giants as benchmarks for astrophysical studies.« less
  7. Contact. The large quantity of high-quality asteroseismic data that have been obtained from space-based photometric missions and the accuracy of the resulting frequencies motivate a careful consideration of the accuracy of computed oscillation frequencies of stellar models, when applied as diagnostics of the model properties. Aims. Based on models of red-giant stars that have been independently calculated using different stellar evolution codes, we investigate the extent to which the differences in the model calculation affect the model oscillation frequencies and other asteroseismic diagnostics. Methods. For each of the models, which cover four different masses and different evolution stages on themore »red-giant branch, we computed full sets of low-degree oscillation frequencies using a single pulsation code and, from these frequencies, typical asteroseismic diagnostics. In addition, we carried out preliminary analyses to relate differences in the oscillation properties to the corresponding model differences. Results. In general, the differences in asteroseismic properties between the different models greatly exceed the observational precision of these properties. This is particularly true for the nonradial modes whose mixed acoustic and gravity-wave character makes them sensitive to the structure of the deep stellar interior and, hence, to details of their evolution. In some cases, identifying these differences led to improvements in the final models presented here and in Paper I; here we illustrate particular examples of this. Conclusions. Further improvements in stellar modelling are required in order fully to utilise the observational accuracy to probe intrinsic limitations in the modelling and improve our understanding of stellar internal physics. However, our analysis of the frequency differences and their relation to stellar internal properties provides a striking illustration of the potential, in particular, of the mixed modes of red-giant stars for the diagnostics of stellar interiors.« less