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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023

    The detection of Intermediate-Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) in dwarf galaxies is crucial to closing the gap in the wide mass distribution of black holes ($\sim 3 \, {\rm M_\odot }$ to $\sim 5 \times 10^{10} \, {\rm M_\odot }$). IMBHs originally located at the centre of dwarfs that later collide with the Milky Way (MW) could be wandering, undetected, in our Galaxy. We used TNG50, the highest resolution run of the IllustrisTNG project, to study the kinematics and dynamics of star clusters, in the appropriate mass range, acting as IMBH proxies in an MW analogue galaxy. We showed that $\sim 87{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of our studied IMBHs drift inward. The radial velocity of these sinking IMBHs has a median magnitude of $\sim 0.44 \, \mathrm{ckpc \, h^{-1} \, Gyr^{-1}}$ and no dependence on the black hole mass. The central $1 \, \rm ckpc \, h^{-1}$ has the highest number density of IMBHs in the galaxy. A physical toy model with linear drag forces was developed to explain the orbital circularization with time. These findings constrain the spatial distribution of IMBHs, suggesting that future searches should focus on the central regions of the Galaxy. Additionally, we found that themore »3D velocity distribution of IMBHs with respect to the galactic centre has a mean of $\sim 180 \, \mathrm{km \, s^{-1}}$ and larger variance with decreasing radius. Remarkably, the velocity distribution relative to the local gas shows significantly lower values, with a mean of $\sim 88 \, \mathrm{km \, s^{-1}}$. These results are instrumental for predicting the accretion and radiation properties of IMBHs, facilitating their detection with future surveys.

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  4. Gadd, GM ; Sariaslani, S. (Ed.)
    Climate change, with its extreme temperature, weather and precipitation patterns, is a major global concern of dryland farmers, who currently meet the challenges of climate change agronomically and with growth of drought-tolerant crops. Plants themselves compensate for water stress by modifying aerial surfaces to control transpiration and altering root hydraulic conductance to increase water uptake. These responses are complemented by metabolic changes involving phytohormone network-mediated activation of stress response pathways, resulting in decreased photosynthetic activity and the accumulation of metabolites to maintain osmotic and redox homeostasis. Phylogenetically diverse microbial communities sustained by plants contribute to host drought tolerance by modulating phytohormone levels in the rhizosphere and producing water-sequestering biofilms. Drylands of the Inland Pacific Northwest, USA, illustrate the interdependence of dryland crops and their associated microbiota. Indigenous Pseudomonas spp. selected there by long-term wheat monoculture suppress root diseases via the production of antibiotics, with soil moisture a critical determinant of the bacterial distribution, dynamics and activity. Those pseudomonads producing phenazine antibiotics on wheat had more abundant rhizosphere biofilms and provided improved tolerance to drought, suggesting a role of the antibiotic in alleviation of drought stress. The transcriptome and metabolome studies suggest the importance of wheat root exudate-derived osmoprotectants for themore »adaptation of these pseudomonads to the rhizosphere lifestyle and support the idea that the exchange of metabolites between plant roots and microorganisms profoundly affects and shapes the belowground plant microbiome under water stress.« less
  5. Abstract

    Design of nucleic acid-based viral diagnostics typically follows heuristic rules and, to contend with viral variation, focuses on a genome’s conserved regions. A design process could, instead, directly optimize diagnostic effectiveness using a learned model of sensitivity for targets and their variants. Toward that goal, we screen 19,209 diagnostic–target pairs, concentrated on CRISPR-based diagnostics, and train a deep neural network to accurately predict diagnostic readout. We join this model with combinatorial optimization to maximize sensitivity over the full spectrum of a virus’s genomic variation. We introduce Activity-informed Design with All-inclusive Patrolling of Targets (ADAPT), a system for automated design, and use it to design diagnostics for 1,933 vertebrate-infecting viral species within 2 hours for most species and within 24 hours for all but three. We experimentally show that ADAPT’s designs are sensitive and specific to the lineage level and permit lower limits of detection, across a virus’s variation, than the outputs of standard design techniques. Our strategy could facilitate a proactive resource of assays for detecting pathogens.

  6. It is critical that future sustainability leaders possess the skills and aptitudes needed to tackle increasingly ‘wicked’ challenges. While much has been done to identify this need, inadequate Leadership Training for graduate students in Sustainability (LTS) continues to plague even the most highly-resourced institutions. Collectively, the authors of this paper represent the small yet growing number of LTS programs across the United States and Canada working to close this training gap. In this paper, we describe the integrative approach we took to synthesize our collective knowledge of LTS with our diverse programmatic experiences and, ultimately, translate that work into concrete guidance for LTS implementation and design. We present a framework for the suite of key LTS aptitudes and skills yielded by our collaborative approach, and ground these recommendations in clear, real-world examples. We apply our framework to the creation of an open-access curricular database rich with training details, and link this database to an interactive network map focused on sharing programmatic designs. Together, our process and products transform many disparate components into a more comprehensive and accessible understanding of what we as LTS professionals do, with a view to helping others who are looking to do the same for themore »next generation of sustainability leaders.« less
  7. Abstract Upper-ocean turbulence is central to the exchanges of heat, momentum, and gasses across the air/sea interface, and therefore plays a large role in weather and climate. Current understanding of upper-ocean mixing is lacking, often leading models to misrepresent mixed-layer depths and sea surface temperature. In part, progress has been limited due to the difficulty of measuring turbulence from fixed moorings which can simultaneously measure surface fluxes and upper-ocean stratification over long time periods. Here we introduce a direct wavenumber method for measuring Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) dissipation rates, ϵ , from long-enduring moorings using pulse-coherent ADCPs. We discuss optimal programming of the ADCPs, a robust mechanical design for use on a mooring to maximize data return, and data processing techniques including phase-ambiguity unwrapping, spectral analysis, and a correction for instrument response. The method was used in the Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) to collect two year-long data sets. We find the mooring-derived TKE dissipation rates compare favorably to estimates made nearby from a microstructure shear probe mounted to a glider during its two separate two-week missions for (10 −8 ) ≤ ϵ ≤ (10 −5 ) m 2 s −3 . Periods of disagreement between turbulence estimates frommore »the two platforms coincide with differences in vertical temperature profiles, which may indicate that barrier layers can substantially modulate upper-ocean turbulence over horizontal scales of 1-10 km. We also find that dissipation estimates from two different moorings at 12.5 m, and at 7 m are in agreement with the surface buoyancy flux during periods of strong nighttime convection, consistent with classic boundary layer theory.« less