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  1. We use well resolved numerical simulations with the lattice Boltzmann method to study Rayleigh–Bénard convection in cells with a fractal boundary in two dimensions for $Pr = 1$ and $Ra \in \left [10^7, 10^{10}\right ]$ , where Pr and Ra are the Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers. The fractal boundaries are functions characterized by power spectral densities $S(k)$ that decay with wavenumber, $k$ , as $S(k) \sim k^{p}$ ( $p < 0$ ). The degree of roughness is quantified by the exponent $p$ with $p < -3$ for smooth (differentiable) surfaces and $-3 \le p < -1$ for rough surfaces with Hausdorff dimension $D_f=\frac {1}{2}(p+5)$ . By computing the exponent $\beta$ using power law fits of $Nu \sim Ra^{\beta }$ , where $Nu$ is the Nusselt number, we find that the heat transport scaling increases with roughness through the top two decades of $Ra \in \left [10^8, 10^{10}\right ]$ . For $p$ $= -3.0$ , $-2.0$ and $-1.5$ we find $\beta = 0.288 \pm 0.005, 0.329 \pm 0.006$ and $0.352 \pm 0.011$ , respectively. We also find that the Reynolds number, $Re$ , scales as $Re \sim Ra^{\xi }$ , where $\xi \approx 0.57$ over $Ra \in \left [10^7, 10^{10}\right ]$more », for all $p$ used in the study. For a given value of $p$ , the averaged $Nu$ and $Re$ are insensitive to the specific realization of the roughness.« less
  2. Marine-terminating glaciers, such as those along the coastline of Greenland, often release meltwater into the ocean in the form of subglacial discharge plumes. Though these plumes can dramatically alter the mass loss along the front of a glacier, the conditions surrounding their genesis remain poorly constrained. In particular, little is known about the geometry of subglacial outlets and the extent to which seawater may intrude into them. Here, the latter is addressed by exploring the dynamics of an arrested salt wedge – a steady-state, two-layer flow system where salty water partially intrudes a channel carrying fresh water. Building on existing theory, we formulate a model that predicts the length of a non-entraining salt wedge as a function of the Froude number, the slope of the channel and coefficients for interfacial and wall drag. In conjunction, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to observe a salt wedge within a rectangular channel. For experiments conducted with laminar flow (Reynolds number $Re<800$ ), good agreement with theoretical predictions are obtained when the drag coefficients are modelled as being inversely proportional to $Re$ . However, for fully turbulent flows on geophysical scales, these drag coefficients are expected to asymptote toward finite values. Adoptingmore »reasonable drag coefficient estimates for this flow regime, our theoretical model suggests that typical subglacial channels may permit seawater intrusions of the order of several kilometres. While crude, these results indicate that the ocean has a strong tendency to penetrate subglacial channels and potentially undercut the face of marine-terminating glaciers.« less