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  1. Ecologists and evolutionary biologists are increasingly cognizant of rapid adaptation in wild populations. Rapid adaptation to anthropogenic environmental change is critical for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystems services into the future. Anthropogenic salinization of freshwater ecosystems is quickly emerging as a primary threat, which is well documented in the northern temperate ecoregion. Specifically, many northern temperate lakes have undergone extensive salinization because of urbanization and the associated increase in impervious surfaces causing runoff, and the extensive use of road deicing salts (e.g., NaCl). It remains unclear whether increasing salinization will lead to extirpation of species from these systems. Using a “resurrection genomics” approach, we investigated whether the keystone aquatic herbivore,Daphnia pulicaria,has evolved increased salinity tolerance in a severely salinized lake located in Minnesota, USA. Whole-genome resequencing of 54Daphniaclones from the lake and hatched from resting eggs that represent a 25-y temporal contrast demonstrates that many regions of the genome containing genes related to osmoregulation are under selection in the study population. Tolerance assays of clones revealed that the most recent clones are more tolerant to salinity than older clones; this pattern is concomitant with the temporal pattern of stabilizing salinity in this lake. Together, our results demonstrate that keystone species such asDaphniacan rapidly adapt to increasing freshwater salinization. Further, our results indicate that rapid adaptation to salinity may allow lakeDaphniapopulations to persist in the face of anthropogenic salinization maintaining the food webs and ecosystem services they support despite global environmental change.

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  2. Abstract

    Speciation genomic studies have revealed that genomes of diverging lineages are shaped jointly by the actions of gene flow and selection. These evolutionary forces acting in concert with processes such as recombination and genome features such as gene density shape a mosaic landscape of divergence. We investigated the roles of recombination and gene density in shaping the patterns of differentiation and divergence between the cyclically parthenogenetic ecological sister‐taxa,Daphnia pulicariaandDaphnia pulex. First, we assembled a phased chromosome‐scale genome assembly using trio‐binning forD.pulicariaand constructed a genetic map using an F2‐intercross panel to understand sex‐specific recombination rate heterogeneity. Finally, we used a ddRADseq data set with broad geographic sampling ofD.pulicaria,D.pulex, and their hybrids to understand the patterns of genome‐scale divergence and demographic parameters. Our study provides the first sex‐specific estimates of recombination rates for a cyclical parthenogen, and unlike other eukaryotic species, we observed male‐biased heterochiasmy inD.pulicaria, which may be related to this somewhat unique breeding mode. Additionally, regions of high gene density and recombination are generally more divergent than regions of suppressed recombination. Outlier analysis indicated that divergent genomic regions are probably driven by selection onD.pulicaria, the derived lineage colonizing a novel lake habitat. Together, our study supports a scenario of selection acting on genes related to local adaptation shaping genome‐wide patterns of differentiation despite high local recombination rates in this species complex. Finally, we discuss the limitations of our data in light of demographic uncertainty.

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