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  1. An interspersed array of Cs and Rb atoms was used to implement a protocol for the correction of correlated errors. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 23, 2024
  2. The incorporation of dilute concentrations of bismuth into traditional III–V alloys produces significant reductions in bandgap energy presenting unique opportunities in strain and bandgap engineering. However, the disparity between the ideal growth conditions for the host matrix and those required for substitutional bismuth incorporation has caused the material quality of these III–V–Bi alloys to lag behind that of conventional III–V semiconductors. InSb1−xBix, while experimentally underexplored, is a promising candidate for high-quality III–V–Bi alloys due to the relatively similar ideal growth temperatures for InSb and III–Bi materials. By identifying a highly kinetically limited growth regime, we demonstrate the growth of high-quality InSb1−xBix by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) measurements of the alloy's bismuth concentration, coupled with smooth surface morphologies as measured by atomic force microscopy, suggest unity-sticking bismuth incorporation for a range of bismuth concentrations from 0.8% to 1.5% as measured by RBS. In addition, the first photoluminescence was observed from InSb1−xBix and demonstrated wavelength extension up to 7.6 μm at 230 K, with a bismuth-induced bandgap reduction of ∼29 meV/% Bi. Furthermore, we report the temperature dependence of the bandgap of InSb1−xBix and observed behavior consistent with that of a traditional III–V alloy. The results presented highlight the potential of InSb1−xBix as an alternative emerging candidate for accessing the longwave-infrared.

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  3. Highly mismatched semiconductor alloys (HMAs) offer unusual combinations of bandgap and lattice constant, which are attractive for myriad applications. Dilute borides, such as BGa(In)As, are typically assumed to be HMAs. BGa(In)As can be grown in higher alloy compositions than Ga(In)NAs with comparable bandgaps, potentially enabling routes to lattice-matched telecom lasers on Si or GaAs. However, BGa(In)As remains relatively unexplored, especially with large fractions of indium. Density functional theory with HSE06 hybrid functionals was employed to study BGaInAs with 4%–44% In and 0%–11% B, including atomic rearrangement effects. All compositions showed a direct bandgap, and the character of the lowest conduction band was nearly unperturbed with the addition of B. Surprisingly, although the bandgap remained almost constant and the lattice constant followed Vegard's law with the addition of boron, the electron effective mass increased. The increase in electron effective mass was higher than in conventional alloys, though smaller than those characteristics of HMAs. This illustrates a particularly striking finding, specifically that the compositional space of BGa(In)As appears to span conventional alloy and HMA behavior, so it is not well-described by either limit. For example, adding B to GaAs introduces additional states within the conduction band, but further addition of In removes them, regardless of the atomic arrangement. 
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  4. This study investigated ethnic-racial identity developmental processes (i.e., exploration and resolution) as pathways for adolescents to develop global bicultural competence, or the ability to meet heritage and host cultural demands. The sample included 749 U.S. Mexican-origin youth (30% Mexico-born; 51% male) followed from early-to-late adolescence (Mage = 12.79 to 17.38 years). Longitudinal structural equation analyses revealed that youth’s sequential engagement in ethnic-racial identity exploration and resolution (from early-to-middle adolescence) promoted global bicultural competence in late adolescence. Findings highlight the benefits of achieving clarity about one’s ethnic-racial identity via self-exploration efforts for adolescents’ ability to respond effectively to bicultural demands. This study advances mechanisms via which ethnic-racial identity development may support youth adaptation to multiple cultural systems. 
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  5. Abstract

    The impact of global orography on Northern Hemisphere wintertime climate is revisited using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, version 6 (WACCM6). A suite of experiments explores the roles of both resolved orography and the parameterized effects of unresolved orographic drag (hereafterparameterized orography), including gravity waves and boundary layer turbulence. Including orography reduces the extratropical tropospheric and stratospheric zonal mean zonal windby up to 80%; this is substantially greater than previous estimates. Ultimately, parameterized orography accounts for 60%–80% of this reduction; however, away from the surface most of the forcing ofby parameterized orography is accomplished byresolvedplanetary waves. We propose that a catalytic wave–mean-flow positive feedback in the stratosphere makes the stratospheric flow particularly sensitive to parameterized orography. Orography and land–sea contrast contribute approximately equally to the strength of the midlatitude stationary waves in the free troposphere, although orography is the dominant cause of the strength of the Siberian high and Aleutian low at the surface and of the position of the Icelandic low. We argue that precisely quantifying the role of orography on the observed stationary waves is an almost intractable problem, and in particular should not be approached with linear stationary wave models in whichis prescribed. We show that orography has less impact on stationary waves, and therefore on, on a backward-rotating Earth. Last, we show that atmospheric meridional heat transport shows remarkable constancy across our simulations, despite vastly different climates and stationary wave strengths.

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  8. Abstract We report on multiwavelength target-of-opportunity observations of the blazar PKS 0735+178, located 2.°2 away from the best-fit position of the IceCube neutrino event IceCube-211208A detected on 2021 December 8. The source was in a high-flux state in the optical, ultraviolet, X-ray, and GeV γ -ray bands around the time of the neutrino event, exhibiting daily variability in the soft X-ray flux. The X-ray data from Swift-XRT and NuSTAR characterize the transition between the low-energy and high-energy components of the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED), and the γ -ray data from Fermi-LAT, VERITAS, and H.E.S.S. require a spectral cutoff near 100 GeV. Both the X-ray and γ -ray measurements provide strong constraints on the leptonic and hadronic models. We analytically explore a synchrotron self-Compton model, an external Compton model, and a lepto-hadronic model. Models that are entirely based on internal photon fields face serious difficulties in matching the observed SED. The existence of an external photon field in the source would instead explain the observed γ -ray spectral cutoff in both the leptonic and lepto-hadronic models and allow a proton jet power that marginally agrees with the Eddington limit in the lepto-hadronic model. We show a numerical lepto-hadronic model with external target photons that reproduces the observed SED and is reasonably consistent with the neutrino event despite requiring a high jet power. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 23, 2024