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  1. Artificial Intelligence (AI) brings advancements to support pathologists in navigating high-resolution tumor images to search for pathology patterns of interest. However, existing AI-assisted tools have not realized the promised potential due to a lack of insight into pathology and HCI considerations for pathologists’ navigation workflows in practice. We first conducted a formative study with six medical professionals in pathology to capture their navigation strategies. By incorporating our observations along with the pathologists’ domain knowledge, we designed NaviPath — a human-AI collaborative navigation system. An evaluation study with 15 medical professionals in pathology indicated that: (i) compared to the manual navigation, participants saw more than twice the number of pathological patterns in unit time with NaviPath, and (ii) participants achieved higher precision and recall against the AI and the manual navigation on average. Further qualitative analysis revealed that participants’ navigation was more consistent with NaviPath, which can improve the examination quality.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  2. We present a new prospective analysis of deep multi-band imaging with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). In this work, we investigate the recovery of high-redshift 5 <   z  <  12 galaxies through extensive image simulations of accepted JWST programs, including the Early Release Science in the EGS field and the Guaranteed Time Observations in the HUDF. We introduced complete samples of ∼300 000 galaxies with stellar masses of log( M * / M ⊙ ) > 6 and redshifts of 0 <   z  <  15, as well as galactic stars, into realistic mock NIRCam, MIRI, and HST images to properly describe the impact of source blending. We extracted the photometry of the detected sources, as in real images, and estimated the physical properties of galaxies through spectral energy distribution fitting. We find that the photometric redshifts are primarily limited by the availability of blue-band and near-infrared medium-band imaging. The stellar masses and star formation rates are recovered within 0.25 and 0.3 dex, respectively, for galaxies with accurate photometric redshifts. Brown dwarfs contaminating the z  >  5 galaxy samples can be reduced to < 0.01 arcmin −2 with a limited impact on galaxy completeness. We investigate multiple high-redshift galaxy selectionmore »techniques and find that the best compromise between completeness and purity at 5 <   z  <  10 using the full redshift posterior probability distributions. In the EGS field, the galaxy completeness remains higher than 50% at magnitudes m UV  <  27.5 and at all redshifts, and the purity is maintained above 80 and 60% at z  ≤ 7 and 10, respectively. The faint-end slope of the galaxy UV luminosity function is recovered with a precision of 0.1–0.25, and the cosmic star formation rate density within 0.1 dex. We argue in favor of additional observing programs covering larger areas to better constrain the bright end.« less
  3. Drug development suffers from a lack of predictive and human-relevant in vitro models. Organ-on-chip (OOC) technology provides advanced culture capabilities to generate physiologically appropriate, human-based tissue in vitro , therefore providing a route to a predictive in vitro model. However, OOC technologies are often created at the expense of throughput, industry-standard form factors, and compatibility with state-of-the-art data collection tools. Here we present an OOC platform with advanced culture capabilities supporting a variety of human tissue models including liver, vascular, gastrointestinal, and kidney. The platform has 96 devices per industry standard plate and compatibility with contemporary high-throughput data collection tools. Specifically, we demonstrate programmable flow control over two physiologically relevant flow regimes: perfusion flow that enhances hepatic tissue function and high-shear stress flow that aligns endothelial monolayers. In addition, we integrate electrical sensors, demonstrating quantification of barrier function of primary gut colon tissue in real-time. We utilize optical access to the tissues to directly quantify renal active transport and oxygen consumption via integrated oxygen sensors. Finally, we leverage the compatibility and throughput of the platform to screen all 96 devices using high content screening (HCS) and evaluate gene expression using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). By combining these capabilities in one platform,more »physiologically-relevant tissues can be generated and measured, accelerating optimization of an in vitro model, and ultimately increasing predictive accuracy of in vitro drug screening.« less
  4. Abstract

    Fundamentally, material flow stress increases exponentially at deformation rates exceeding, typically, ~103 s−1, resulting in brittle failure. The origin of such behavior derives from the dislocation motion causing non-Arrhenius deformation at higher strain rates due to drag forces from phonon interactions. Here, we discover that this assumption is prevented from manifesting when microstructural length is stabilized at an extremely fine size (nanoscale regime). This divergent strain-rate-insensitive behavior is attributed to a unique microstructure that alters the average dislocation velocity, and distance traveled, preventing/delaying dislocation interaction with phonons until higher strain rates than observed in known systems; thus enabling constant flow-stress response even at extreme conditions. Previously, these extreme loading conditions were unattainable in nanocrystalline materials due to thermal and mechanical instability of their microstructures; thus, these anomalies have never been observed in any other material. Finally, the unique stability leads to high-temperature strength maintained up to 80% of the melting point (~1356 K).