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  1. This paper discusses the key elements of a research study that focused on training an important procedure called “Endotracheal intubation” to novice students. Such a procedure is a virtual part of treating patients who are infected with the covid-19 virus. A virtual reality environment was created to facilitate the training of novice nurses (or nurse trainees) using the HTC Vive platform. The primary interaction with the virtual objects inside this simulation-based training environment was using the hand controller. However, the small mouth of the virtual patient and the necessity of utilizing both hands to pick up the laryngoscope and endotracheal tube at the same time (during training), led to collisions involving the hand controllers and hampered the immersive experience of the participants. A multi-sensory conflict notion-based approach was proposed to address this problem. We used “Haptic retargeting” method to solve this issue. And we compared the result of the haptic retargeting method with reference condtion. Initial Results (through a questionnaire) suggest that this Haptic retargeting approach increases the participants’ sense of presence in the virtual environment. 
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  2. Shu-ichiro Inutsuka ; Yuri Aikawa ; Takayuki Muto ; Kengo Tomida ; Motohide Tamura (Ed.)
    Since Protostars and Planets VI (PPVI), our knowledge of the global properties of protoplanetary and debris disks, as well as of young stars, has dramatically improved. At the time of PPVI, mm-observations and optical to near-infrared spectroscopic surveys were largely limited to the Taurus star-forming region, especially of its most massive disk and stellar population. Now, near-complete surveys of multiple star-forming regions cover both spectroscopy of young stars and mm interferometry of their protoplanetary disks. This provides an unprecedented statistical sample of stellar masses and mass accretion rates, as well as disk masses and radii, for almost 1000 young stellar objects within 300 pc from us, while also sampling different evolutionary stages, ages, and environments. At the same time, surveys of debris disks are revealing the bulk properties of this class of more evolved objects. This chapter reviews the statistics of these measured global star and disk properties and discusses their constraints on theoretical models describing global disk evolution. Our comparisons of observations to theoretical model predictions extends beyond the traditional viscous evolution framework to include analytical descriptions of magnetic wind effects. Finally, we discuss how recent observational results can provide a framework for models of planet population synthesis and planet formation. 
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  3. Abstract Existing space-based cold atom experiments have demonstrated the utility of microgravity for improvements in observation times and for minimizing the expansion energy and rate of a freely evolving coherent matter wave. In this paper we explore the potential for space-based experiments to extend the limits of ultracold atoms utilizing not just microgravity, but also other aspects of the space environment such as exceptionally good vacuums and extremely cold temperatures. The tantalizing possibility that such experiments may one day be able to probe physics of quantum objects with masses approaching the Planck mass is discussed. 
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    We present the first results of a pilot program to conduct an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 6 (211–275 GHz) spectral line study of young stellar objects (YSOs) that are undergoing rapid accretion episodes, i.e. FU Ori objects (FUors). Here, we report on molecular emission line observations of the FUor system, V883 Ori. In order to image the FUor object with a full coverage from ∼0.5 arcsec to the map size of ∼30 arcsec, i.e. from disc to outflow scales, we combine the ALMA main array (the 12-m array) with the Atacama Compact Array (7-m array) and the Total Power (TP) array. We detect HCN, HCO+, CH3OH, SO, DCN, and H2CO emission with most of these lines displaying complex kinematics. From position–velocity (PV) diagrams, the detected molecules HCN, HCO+, CH3OH, DCN, SO, and H2CO probe a Keplerian rotating disc in a direction perpendicular to the large-scale outflow detected previously with the 12CO and 13CO lines. Additionally, HCN and HCO+ reveal kinematic signatures of infall motion. The north outflow is seen in HCO+, H2CO, and SO emission. Interestingly, HCO+ emission reveals a pronounced inner depression or ‘hole’ with a size comparable to the radial extension estimated for the CH3OH and 230 GHz continuum. The inner depression in the integrated HCO+ intensity distribution of V883 Ori is most likely the result of optical depth effects, wherein the optically thick nature of the HCO+ and continuum emission towards the innermost parts of V883 Ori can result in a continuum subtraction artefact in the final HCO+ flux level.

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  5. Loreto, F. (Ed.)
  6. null (Ed.)