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  1. Abstract

    Two-terminal memory elements, or memelements, capable of co-locating signal processing and memory via history-dependent reconfigurability at the nanoscale are vital for next-generation computing materials striving to match the brain’s efficiency and flexible cognitive capabilities. While memory resistors, or memristors, have been widely reported, other types of memelements remain underexplored or undiscovered. Here we report the first example of a volatile, voltage-controlled memcapacitor in which capacitive memory arises from reversible and hysteretic geometrical changes in a lipid bilayer that mimics the composition and structure of biomembranes. We demonstrate that the nonlinear dynamics and memory are governed by two implicitly-coupled, voltage-dependent state variables—membrane radius and thickness. Further, our system is capable of tuneable signal processing and learning via synapse-like, short-term capacitive plasticity. These findings will accelerate the development of low-energy, biomolecular neuromorphic memelements, which, in turn, could also serve as models to study capacitive memory and signal processing in neuronal membranes.

  2. Unlike artificial intelligent systems based on computers, which must be programmed for specific tasks, the human brain can learn in real-time to create new tactics and adapt to complex, unpredictable environments. Computers embedded in artificial intelligent systems can execute arbitrary inference algorithms capable of outperforming humans at specific tasks. However, without real-time self-programming functionality, they must be preprogrammed by humans and will likely to fail in unpredictable environments beyond their preprogrammed domains. In this work, a Si-based synaptic resistor (synstor) was developed by integrating Al2Ox/TaOymaterials to emulate biological synapses. The synstors were characterized, and their operation mechanism based on the charge stored in the oxygen vacancies in the Al2Oxmaterial was simulated and analyzed, to understand the inference, learning, and memory functions of the synstors. A self-programming neuromorphic integrated circuit (SNIC) based on synstors was fabricated to execute inference and learning algorithms concurrently in real-time with an energy efficiency more than six-orders of magnitudes higher than those of standard digital computers. The SNIC dynamically modified its algorithm in a real-time learning process to control a morphing wing, thus successfully improving its lift-to-drag force ratio and recovering the wing from stall in complex aerodynamic environments. The synaptic resistor circuits can potentially circumventmore »the fundamental limitations of computers, thus providing a platform analogous to neurobiological network with real-time self-programming functionality for artificial intelligent systems.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 22, 2023
  3. Abstract

    Memristors with tunable resistance states are emerging building blocks of artificial neural networks. However, in situ learning on a large-scale multiple-layer memristor network has yet to be demonstrated because of challenges in device property engineering and circuit integration. Here we monolithically integrate hafnium oxide-based memristors with a foundry-made transistor array into a multiple-layer neural network. We experimentally demonstrate in situ learning capability and achieve competitive classification accuracy on a standard machine learning dataset, which further confirms that the training algorithm allows the network to adapt to hardware imperfections. Our simulation using the experimental parameters suggests that a larger network would further increase the classification accuracy. The memristor neural network is a promising hardware platform for artificial intelligence with high speed-energy efficiency.