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  1. ABSTRACT Photometric and spectroscopic data for two Low Luminosity Type IIP Supernovae (LL SNe IIP) 2020cxd and 2021aai are presented. SN 2020cxd was discovered 2 d after explosion at an absolute magnitude of Mr  = −14.02 ± 0.21 mag, subsequently settling on a plateau which lasts for ∼120 d. Through the luminosity of the late light curve tail, we infer a synthesized 56Ni mass of (1.8 ± 0.5) × 10−3 M⊙. During the early evolutionary phases, optical spectra show a blue continuum ($T\, \gt $8000 K) with broad Balmer lines displaying a P Cygni profile, while at later phases, Ca ii, Fe ii, Sc ii, and Ba ii lines dominate the spectra. Hydrodynamical modelling of the observables yields $R\, \simeq$ 575 R⊙ for the progenitor star, with Mej  = 7.5 M⊙ and $E\, \simeq$ 0.097 foe emitted during the explosion. This low-energy event originating from a low-mass progenitor star is compatible with both the explosion of a red supergiant (RSG) star and with an Electron Capture Supernova arising from a super asymptotic giant branch star. SN 2021aai reaches a maximum luminosity of Mr  = −16.57 ± 0.23 mag (correcting for AV = 1.92 mag), at the end of its remarkably long plateau (∼140 d). The estimated 56Ni mass is (1.4 ± 0.5) × 10−2 M⊙. The expansion velocities are compatible with those of other LL SNe IIP (few 103 km s−1). The physicalmore »parameters obtained through hydrodynamical modelling are $R\, \simeq$ 575 R⊙, Mej = 15.5 M⊙, and E = 0.4 foe. SN 2021aai is therefore interpreted as the explosion of an RSG, with properties that bridge the class of LL SNe IIP with standard SN IIP events.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 24, 2023
  2. ABSTRACT AT 2016dah and AT 2017fyp are fairly typical Andromeda galaxy (M 31) classical novae. AT 2016dah is an almost text book example of a ‘very fast’ declining, yet uncommon, Fe ii‘b’ (broad-lined) nova, discovered during the rise to peak optical luminosity, and decaying with a smooth broken power-law light curve. AT 2017fyp is classed as a ‘fast’ nova, unusually for M 31, its early decline spectrum simultaneously shows properties of both Fe ii and He/N spectral types – a ‘hybrid’. Similarly, the light curve of AT 2017fyp has a broken power-law decline but exhibits an extended flat-topped maximum. Both novae were followed in the UV and X-ray by the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, but no X-ray source was detected for either nova. The pair were followed photometrically and spectroscopically into their nebular phases. The progenitor systems were not visible in archival optical data, implying that the mass donors are main-sequence stars. What makes AT 2016dah and AT 2017fyp particularly interesting is their position with respect to M 31. The pair are close on the sky but are located far from the centre of M 31, lying almost along the semiminor axis of their host. Radial velocity measurements and simulations of the M 31 nova population leads to the conclusion that both novae aremore »members of the Andromeda Giant Stellar Stream (GSS). We find the probability of at least two M 31 novae appearing coincident with the GSS by chance is $\sim \!1{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$. Therefore, we claim that these novae arose from the GSS progenitor, not M 31 – the first confirmed novae discovered in a tidal steam.« less
  3. We present the results of our monitoring campaigns of the luminous red novae (LRNe) AT 2020hat in NGC 5068 and AT 2020kog in NGC 6106. The two objects were imaged (and detected) before their discovery by routine survey operations. They show a general trend of slow luminosity rise, lasting at least a few months. The subsequent major LRN outbursts were extensively followed in photometry and spectroscopy. The light curves present an initial short-duration peak, followed by a redder plateau phase. AT 2020kog is a moderately luminous event peaking at ∼7 × 10 40 erg s −1 , while AT 2020hat is almost one order of magnitude fainter than AT 2020kog, although it is still more luminous than V838 Mon. In analogy with other LRNe, the spectra of AT 2020kog change significantly with time. They resemble those of type IIn supernovae at early phases, then they become similar to those of K-type stars during the plateau, and to M-type stars at very late phases. In contrast, AT 2020hat already shows a redder continuum at early epochs, and its spectrum shows the late appearance of molecular bands. A moderate-resolution spectrum of AT 2020hat taken at +37 d after maximum shows a forest of narrowmore »P Cygni lines of metals with velocities of 180 km s −1 , along with an H α emission with a full-width at half-maximum velocity of 250 km s −1 . For AT 2020hat, a robust constraint on its quiescent progenitor is provided by archival images of the Hubble Space Telescope. The progenitor is clearly detected as a mid-K type star, with an absolute magnitude of M F 606 W  = −3.33 ± 0.09 mag and a colour of F 606 W  −  F 814 W  = 1.14 ± 0.05 mag, which are inconsistent with the expectations from a massive star that could later produce a core-collapse supernova. Although quite peculiar, the two objects nicely match the progenitor versus light curve absolute magnitude correlations discussed in the literature.« less