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  1. The South Atlantic Transect (SAT) is a multidisciplinary scientific ocean drilling project that will recover complete sedimentary sections and the upper ~250 m of the underlying oceanic crust along a slow/intermediate spreading rate Mid-Atlantic Ridge crustal flow line at ~31°S. These cores were originally scheduled to be collected during International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 390 and 393 in October–December 2020 and April–June 2021, respectively. In 2020 and 2021, the global COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the postponement of several IODP expeditions, including Expeditions 390 and 393, chiefly because science parties were unable to travel to the R/V JOIDES Resolution. Inmore »response, the ship was used to conduct preparatory work for the postponed expeditions that did not require a science party aboard but could be carried out by the ship’s crew and a team of technicians from the JOIDES Resolution Science Operator. Two of these expeditions (390C and 395E) were in service of the SAT drilling project, to reduce the operational risks and expedite basement drilling during the rescheduled Expeditions 390 and 393. Expeditions 390C and 395E visited five of the six primary SAT sites and successfully cored a single advanced piston corer/extended core barrel hole penetrating the entire sediment section and <10 m into the underlying basalt before installing a reentry system in a second hole at each site visited. Given these accomplishments, the operations plans for the rescheduled Expeditions 390 and 393 have been revised.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 390C and 395E were implemented in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic and occupied sites proposed for the postponed Expeditions 390 and 393, South Atlantic Transect 1 and 2. Expedition 395E completed most of the preparatory work that Expedition 390C did not have time to complete. The overall objective of Expeditions 390C and 395E was to core one hole at each of the South Atlantic Transect sites with the advanced piston corer/extended core barrel (APC/XCB) system to basement for gas safety monitoring and to install a reentry system with casing through the sediment tomore »a few meters into basement in a second hole. Expedition 395E started in Cape Town, South Africa, and ended in Reykjavík, Iceland, after 20 days of on-site operations. We cored to basement at two new sites, U1560 and U1561, and completed reentry systems at three sites, U1556, U1557, and U1560. These operations will expedite basement drilling during the rescheduled Expeditions 390 and 393. Hole U1560A (Proposed Site SATL-25A) lies in ~15.2 Ma crust and is composed of carbonate-rich sediments to 120 meters below seafloor (mbsf) and 2.5 m of underlying basalt. A reentry system was deployed in Hole U1560B to 122.0 mbsf. We then moved to the sites at the western end of the transect on ~61 Ma crust. In Hole U1557D, 10¾ inch casing was deployed to 571.6 mbsf to deepen the 16 inch casing that was deployed during Expedition 390C, and in Hole U1556B, a reentry system was deployed to 284.2 mbsf. The remaining operations time was insufficient to install a reentry system at the originally planned site, Proposed Site SATL-33B. Instead, we cored Hole U1561A (Proposed Site SATL-55A) to 47 mbsf. It is composed of red clay and carbonate ooze overlying 3 m of basalt. The six primary sites of the South Atlantic Transect lie perpendicular to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on the South American plate, overlying crust ranging in age from 7 to 61 Ma. Basement coring will increase our understanding of how crustal alteration progresses over time across the flanks of a slow/intermediate-spreading ridge and how microorganisms survive in deep subsurface environments. Sediment will be used in paleoceanographic and microbiological studies.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  4. International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 382, Iceberg Alley and Subantarctic Ice and Ocean Dynamics, investigated the long-term climate history of Antarctica, seeking to understand how polar ice sheets responded to changes in insolation and atmospheric CO2 in the past and how ice sheet evolution influenced global sea level and vice versa. Five sites (U1534–U1538) were drilled east of the Drake Passage: two sites at 53.2°S at the northern edge of the Scotia Sea and three sites at 57.4°–59.4°S in the southern Scotia Sea. We recovered continuously deposited late Neogene sediments to reconstruct the past history and variability in Antarctic Icemore »Sheet (AIS) mass loss and associated changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation. The sites from the southern Scotia Sea (Sites U1536–U1538) will be used to study the Neogene flux of icebergs through “Iceberg Alley,” the main pathway along which icebergs calved from the margin of the AIS travel as they move equatorward into the warmer waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). In particular, sediments from this area will allow us to assess the magnitude of iceberg flux during key times of AIS evolution, including the following: • The middle Miocene glacial intensification of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, • The mid-Pliocene warm period, • The late Pliocene glacial expansion of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, • The mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT), and • The “warm interglacials” and glacial terminations of the last 800 ky. We will use the geochemical provenance of iceberg-rafted detritus and other glacially eroded material to determine regional sources of AIS mass loss. We will also address interhemispheric phasing of ice sheet growth and decay, study the distribution and history of land-based versus marine-based ice sheets around the continent over time, and explore the links between AIS variability and global sea level. By comparing north–south variations across the Scotia Sea between the Pirie Basin (Site U1538) and the Dove Basin (Sites U1536 and U1537), Expedition 382 will also deliver critical information on how climate changes in the Southern Ocean affect ocean circulation through the Drake Passage, meridional overturning in the region, water mass production, ocean–atmosphere CO2 transfer by wind-induced upwelling, sea ice variability, bottom water outflow from the Weddell Sea, Antarctic weathering inputs, and changes in oceanic and atmospheric fronts in the vicinity of the ACC. Comparing changes in dust proxy records between the Scotia Sea and Antarctic ice cores will also provide a detailed reconstruction of changes in the Southern Hemisphere westerlies on millennial and orbital timescales for the last 800 ky. Extending the ocean dust record beyond the last 800 ky will help to evaluate dust-climate couplings since the Pliocene, the potential role of dust in iron fertilization and atmospheric CO2 drawdown during glacials, and whether dust input to Antarctica played a role in the MPT. The principal scientific objective of Subantarctic Front Sites U1534 and U1535 at the northern limit of the Scotia Sea is to reconstruct and understand how intermediate water formation in the southwest Atlantic responds to changes in connectivity between the Atlantic and Pacific basins, the “cold water route.” The Subantarctic Front contourite drift, deposited between 400 and 2000 m water depth on the northern flank of an east–west trending trough off the Chilean continental shelf, is ideally situated to monitor millennial- to orbital-scale variability in the export of Antarctic Intermediate Water beneath the Subantarctic Front. During Expedition 382, we recovered continuously deposited sediments from this drift spanning the late Pleistocene (from ~0.78 Ma to recent) and from the late Pliocene (~3.1–2.6 Ma). These sites are expected to yield a wide array of paleoceanographic records that can be used to interpret past changes in the density structure of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, track migrations of the Subantarctic Front, and give insights into the role and evolution of the cold water route over significant climate episodes, including the following: • The most recent warm interglacials of the late Pleistocene and • The intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation.« less
  5. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 390C was implemented in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic and occupied sites proposed for the postponed Expeditions 390 and 393. The objectives for Expedition 390C were to core one hole at each site with the advanced piston corer/extended core barrel (APC/XCB) system to basement for gas safety monitoring and to install a reentry system with casing through the sediment to between ~5 m above basement and <5 m into basement in a second hole. These operations will expedite basement drilling during the rescheduled South Atlantic Transect Expeditions 390 and 393. The six primarymore »sites for those expeditions form a transect perpendicular to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on the South American plate, overlying crust ranging in age from 7 to 61 Ma. Basement coring will increase our understanding of how crustal alteration progresses over time across the flanks of a slow/intermediate spreading ridge and how microorganisms survive in deep subsurface environments. Sediment will be used in paleoceanographic and microbiological studies. Expedition 390C started in Kristiansand, Norway, and ended in Cape Town, South Africa, after 31 days of operations. We cored a single APC/XCB sediment hole to the contact with hard rock material at four of the six sites and successfully installed reentry systems with casing at three. Two failed attempts at drilling in casing and a reentry system into hard rock at Site U1558 indicate that the Dril-Quip reentry cones and running tools are incompatible with use in hard rock because the release mechanism does not work when the casing string weight cannot be fully removed from the running tool. Therefore, at Sites U1558 and U1559, casing was installed to ~10 m above basement. Site U1557 has a thick sediment cover (564 m) and will require multiple casing strings to reach basement; a single 16" casing string was installed to 60 meters below seafloor at this site, and later expeditions will extend casing.« less
  6. ABSTRACT The feedback from young stars (i.e. pre-supernova) is thought to play a crucial role in molecular cloud destruction. In this paper, we assess the feedback mechanisms acting within a sample of 5810 H ii regions identified from the PHANGS-MUSE survey of 19 nearby (<20 Mpc) star-forming, main-sequence spiral galaxies [log(M⋆/M⊙) = 9.4–11]. These optical spectroscopic maps are essential to constrain the physical properties of the H ii regions, which we use to investigate their internal pressure terms. We estimate the photoionized gas (Ptherm), direct radiation (Prad), and mechanical wind pressure (Pwind), which we compare to the confining pressure of their host environmentmore »(Pde). The H ii regions remain unresolved within our ∼50–100 pc resolution observations, so we place upper (Pmax) and lower (Pmin) limits on each of the pressures by using a minimum (i.e. clumpy structure) and maximum (i.e. smooth structure) size, respectively. We find that the Pmax measurements are broadly similar, and for Pmin the Ptherm is mildly dominant. We find that the majority of H ii regions are overpressured, Ptot/Pde = (Ptherm + Pwind + Prad)/Pde > 1, and expanding, yet there is a small sample of compact H ii regions with Ptot,max/Pde < 1 (∼1 per cent of the sample). These mostly reside in galaxy centres (Rgal < 1 kpc), or, specifically, environments of high gas surface density; log(Σgas/M⊙ pc−2) ∼ 2.5 (measured on kpc-scales). Lastly, we compare to a sample of literature measurements for Ptherm and Prad to investigate how dominant pressure term transitions over around 5 dex in spatial dynamic range and 10 dex in pressure.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 28, 2022
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2022
  8. Survey cruises by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in 2016 and 2019 yielded specimens of an undetermined red alga that rapidly attained alarming levels of benthic coverage at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, Hawai‘i. By 2019 the seaweed had covered large expanses on the northeast side of the atoll with mat-like, extensive growth of entangled thalli. Specimens were analyzed using light microscopy and molecular analysis, and were compared to morphological descriptions in the literature for closely related taxa. Light microscopy demonstrated that the specimens likely belonged to the rhodomelacean genus Chondria, yet comparisons to taxonomicmore »literature revealed no morphological match. DNA sequence analyses of the mitochondrial COI barcode marker, the plastidial rbcL gene, and the nuclear SSU gene confirmed its genus-level placement and demonstrated that this alga was unique compared to all other available sequences. Based on these data, this cryptogenic seaweed is here proposed as a new species: Chondria tumulosa A.R.Sherwood & J.M.Huisman sp. nov. Chondria tumulosa is distinct from all other species of Chondria based on its large, robust thalli, a mat-forming tendency, large axial diameter in mature branches (which decreases in diameter with subsequent orders of branching), terete axes, and bluntly rounded apices. Although C. tumulosa does not meet the criteria for the definition of an invasive species given that it has not been confirmed as introduced to Pearl and Hermes Atoll, this seaweed is not closely related to any known Hawaiian native species and is of particular concern given its sudden appearance and rapid increase in abundance in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument; an uninhabited, remote, and pristine island chain to the northwest of the Main Hawaiian Islands.« less
  9. Topologically interlocked materials (TIMs) are material systems consisting of one or more repeating unit blocks assembled in a planar configuration such that each block is fully constrained geometrically by its neighbours. The assembly is terminated by a frame that constrains the outermost blocks. The resulting plate-like structure does not use any type of adhesive or fastener between blocks but is capable of carrying transverse loads. These material systems are advantageous due to their potential attractive combination of strength, toughness, and damage tolerance as compared to monolithic plates, especially when using lower strength materials. TIMs are damage tolerant due to themore »fact that cracks in any single block cannot propagate to neighbouring blocks. Many configurations of TIMs have been conceptualized in the past, particularly in architecture, but less work has been done to understand the mechanics of such varied assembly architectures. This work seeks to expand our knowledge of how TIM architecture is related to TIM mechanics. The present study considers TIMs created from the Archimedean and Laves tessellations. Each tessellation is configured as a TIM by projecting each edge of a tile at alternating angles from the normal to the tiling plane. For each tiling, multiple symmetries exist depending on where the frame is placed relative to the tiling. Six unique tilings and their multiple symmetries and load directions were considered, resulting in 19 unique TIM configurations. All TIM configurations were realized with identical equivalent overall assembly dimensions. The radius of the inscribed circle of the square and hexagon frames were the same, as well as the thickness of the assemblies. The tilings were scaled to possess the similar same number of building blocks within the frame. Finite element models were created for each configuration and subjected to two load types under quasi-static conditions: a prescribed displacement applied at the center of the assembly, and by a gravity load. The force deflection response of all TIM structures was found to be similar to that of a Mises truss, comprised of an initial positive stiffness followed by a period of negative stiffness until failure of the assembly. This response is indeed related to the internal working of load transfer in TIMs. Owing to the granular type character of the TIM assembly, the stress distribution follows a force-network. The key findings of this study are: • The load transfer in TIMs follows from force networks and the geometry of the force network is associated with the dual tessellation of the respective TIM system. • In TIMs based on Laves tessellations (centered around a vertex of the tiling rather than the center of a tile), displayed chirality and exerted a moment normal to the tile plane as they were loaded. • TIMs resulting from tessellations with more than one unique tile, such as squares and octagons, are asymmetric along the normal to the tile plane causing a dependence of the load response to the direction of the transverse load. Work is underway to transform these findings into general rules allowing for a predictive relationship between material architecture and mechanical response of TIM systems. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1662177.« less