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    Obtaining accurately calibrated redshift distributions of photometric samples is one of the great challenges in photometric surveys like LSST, Euclid, HSC, KiDS, and DES. We present an inference methodology that combines the redshift information from the galaxy photometry with constraints from two-point functions, utilizing cross-correlations with spatially overlapping spectroscopic samples, and illustrate the approach on CosmoDC2 simulations. Our likelihood framework is designed to integrate directly into a typical large-scale structure and weak lensing analysis based on two-point functions. We discuss efficient and accurate inference techniques that allow us to scale the method to the large samples of galaxies to be expected in LSST. We consider statistical challenges like the parametrization of redshift systematics, discuss and evaluate techniques to regularize the sample redshift distributions, and investigate techniques that can help to detect and calibrate sources of systematic error using posterior predictive checks. We evaluate and forecast photometric redshift performance using data from the CosmoDC2 simulations, within which we mimic a DESI-like spectroscopic calibration sample for cross-correlations. Using a combination of spatial cross-correlations and photometry, we show that we can provide calibration of the mean of the sample redshift distribution to an accuracy of at least 0.002(1 + z), consistent withmore »the LSST-Y1 science requirements for weak lensing and large-scale structure probes.

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  2. Abstract Magnetized plasma interactions are ubiquitous in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. Various physical effects have been shown to be important within colliding plasma flows influenced by opposing magnetic fields, however, experimental verification of the mechanisms within the interaction region has remained elusive. Here we discuss a laser-plasma experiment whereby experimental results verify that Biermann battery generated magnetic fields are advected by Nernst flows and anisotropic pressure effects dominate these flows in a reconnection region. These fields are mapped using time-resolved proton probing in multiple directions. Various experimental, modelling and analytical techniques demonstrate the importance of anisotropic pressure in semi-collisional, high- β plasmas, causing a reduction in the magnitude of the reconnecting fields when compared to resistive processes. Anisotropic pressure dynamics are crucial in collisionless plasmas, but are often neglected in collisional plasmas. We show pressure anisotropy to be essential in maintaining the interaction layer, redistributing magnetic fields even for semi-collisional, high energy density physics (HEDP) regimes.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  3. Abstract The magnetic ground state of the pyrochlore Yb 2 GaSbO 7 has not been established. The persistent spin fluctuations observed by muon spin-relaxation measurements at low temperatures have not been adequately explained for this material using existing theories for quantum magnetism. Here we report on the synthesis and characterisation of Yb 2 GaSbO 7 to revisit the nature of the magnetic ground state. Through DC and AC magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, and neutron scattering experiments, we observe evidence for a dynamical ground state that makes Yb 2 GaSbO 7 a promising candidate for disorder-induced spin-liquid or spin-singlet behaviour. This state is quite fragile, being tuned to a splayed ferromagnet in a modest magnetic field μ 0 H c  ~ 1.5 T.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  4. Abstract We report on optical spectroscopic study of the Sr 3 (Ir 1- x Ru x ) 2 O 7 system over a wide doping regime. We find that the changes in the electronic structure occur in the limited range of the concentration of Ru ions where the insulator–metal transition occurs. In the insulating regime, the electronic structure associated with the effective total angular momentum J eff  = 1/2 Mott state remains robust against Ru doping, indicating the localization of the doped holes. Upon entering the metallic regime, the Mott gap collapses and the Drude-like peak with strange metallic character appears. The evolution of the electronic structure registered in the optical data can be explained in terms of a percolative insulator–metal transition. The phonon spectra display anomalous doping evolution of the lineshapes. While the phonon modes of the compounds deep in the insulating and metallic regimes are almost symmetric, those of the semiconducting compound with x  = 0.34 in close proximity to the doping-driven insulator–metal transition show a pronounced asymmetry. The temperature evolution of the phonon modes of the x  = 0.34 compound reveals the asymmetry is enhanced in the antiferromagnetic state. We discuss roles of the S  = 1 spins of the Rumore »ions and charge excitations for the conspicuous lineshape asymmetry of the x  = 0.34 compound.« less
  5. Abstract The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel of the Montreal Protocol under the United Nations Environment Programme evaluates effects on the environment and human health that arise from changes in the stratospheric ozone layer and concomitant variations in ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth’s surface. The current update is based on scientific advances that have accumulated since our last assessment (Photochem and Photobiol Sci 20(1):1–67, 2021). We also discuss how climate change affects stratospheric ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation, and how stratospheric ozone depletion affects climate change. The resulting interlinking effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and climate change are assessed in terms of air quality, carbon sinks, ecosystems, human health, and natural and synthetic materials. We further highlight potential impacts on the biosphere from extreme climate events that are occurring with increasing frequency as a consequence of climate change. These and other interactive effects are examined with respect to the benefits that the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments are providing to life on Earth by controlling the production of various substances that contribute to both stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023