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Creators/Authors contains: "Winans, Randall E."

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 14, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Nanostructured materials with high surface area and low coordinated atoms present distinct intrinsic properties from their bulk counterparts. However, nanomaterials’ nucleation/growth mechanism during the synthesis process and the changes of the nanomaterials in the working state are still not thoroughly studied. As two indispensable methods, X‐ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provides nanomaterials’ electronic structure and coordination environment, while small‐angle X‐ray scattering (SAXS) offers structural properties and morphology information. A combination of in situ/operando XAS and SAXS provides high temporal and spatial resolution to monitor the evolution of nanomaterials. This review gives a brief introduction to in situ/operando SAXS/XAS cells. In addition, the application of in situ/operando XAS and SAXS in preparing nanomaterials and studying changes of working nanomaterials are summarized.

  3. Abstract

    Single‐atom and subnanocluster catalysts (SSCs) represent a highly promising class of low‐cost materials with high catalytic activity and high atom‐utilization efficiency. However, SSCs are susceptible to undergo restructuring during the reactions. Exploring the active sites of catalysts through in situ characterization techniques plays a critical role in studying reaction mechanism and guiding the design of optimum catalysts. In situ X‐ray absorption spectroscopy/small‐angle X‐ray scattering (XAS/SAXS) is promising and widely used for monitoring electronic structure, atomic configuration, and size changes of SSCs during real‐time working conditions. Unfortunately, there is no detailed summary of XAS/SAXS characterization results of SSCs. The recent advances in applying in situ XAS/SAXS to SSCs are thoroughly summarized in this review, including the atomic structure and oxidation state variations under open circuit and realistic reaction conditions. Furthermore, the reversible transformation of single‐atom catalysts (SACs) to subnanoclusters/nanoparticles and the application of in situ XAS/SAXS in subnanoclusters are discussed. Finally, the outlooks in modulating the SSCs and developing operando XAS/SAXS for SSCs are highlighted.