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  1. Abstract

    With its unprecedented sensitivity and spatial resolution, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has opened a new window for time-domain discoveries in the infrared. Here we report observations in the only field that has received four epochs (spanning 126 days) of JWST NIRCam observations in Cycle 1. This field is toward MACS J0416.1−2403, which is a rich galaxy cluster at redshiftz= 0.4 and is one of the Hubble Frontier Fields. We have discovered 14 transients from these data. Twelve of these transients happened in three galaxies (withz= 0.94, 1.01, and 2.091) crossing a lensing caustic of the cluster, and these transients are highly magnified by gravitational lensing. These 12 transients are likely of a similar nature to those previously reported based on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data in this field, i.e., individual stars in the highly magnified arcs. However, these 12 could not have been found by HST because they were too red and too faint. The other two transients are associated with background galaxies (z= 2.205 and 0.7093) that are only moderately magnified, and they are likely supernovae. They indicate a demagnified supernova surface density, when monitored at a time cadence of a few months to a ∼3–4μm survey limit of AB ∼28.5 mag, of ∼0.5 arcmin−2integrated toz≈ 2. This survey depth is beyond the capability of HST but can be easily reached by JWST.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 22, 2024

    We use the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) and the Deep Extragalactic Visible Legacy Survey (DEVILS) observational data sets to calculate the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) bolometric luminosity history (CSFH/CAGNH) over the last 12.5 billion years. SFRs and AGN bolometric luminosities were derived using the spectral energy distribution fitting code ProSpect, which includes an AGN prescription to self-consistently model the contribution from both AGN and stellar emission to the observed rest-frame ultra-violet to far-infrared photometry. We find that both the CSFH and CAGNH evolve similarly, rising in the early Universe up to a peak at look-back time ≈10 Gyr (z ≈ 2), before declining towards the present day. The key result of this work is that we find the ratio of CAGNH to CSFH has been flat ($\approx 10^{42.5}\, \mathrm{erg \, s^{-1}\, {\rm M}_{\odot }^{-1}\, yr}$) for 11 Gyr up to the present day, indicating that star formation and AGN activity have been coeval over this time period. We find that the stellar masses of the galaxies that contribute most to the CSFH and CAGNH are similar, implying a common cause, which is likely gas inflow. The depletion of the gas supply suppresses cosmic star formation and AGN activity equivalently to ensure that they have experienced similar declines over the last 10 Gyr. These results are an important milestone for reconciling the role of star formation and AGN activity in the life cycle of galaxies.

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  3. Abstract

    We present results of [Cii] 158μm emission line observations, and report the spectroscopic redshift confirmation of a strongly lensed (μ∼ 20) star-forming galaxy, MACS0308-zD1 atz= 6.2078 ± 0.0002. The [Cii] emission line is detected with a signal-to-noise ratio >6 within the rest-frame UV-bright clump of the lensed galaxy (zD1.1) and exhibits multiple velocity components; the narrow [Cii] has a velocity full width half maximum (FWHM) of 110 ± 20 km s−1, while broader [Cii] is seen with an FWHM of 230 ± 50 km s−1. The broader [Cii] component is blueshifted (−80 ± 20 km s−1) with respect to the narrow [Cii] component, and has a morphology that extends beyond the UV-bright clump. We find that, while the narrow [Cii] emission is most likely associated with zD1.1, the broader component is possibly associated with a physically distinct gas component from zD1.1 (e.g., outflowing or inflowing gas). Based on the nondetection ofλ158μmdust continuum, we find that MACS0308-zD1's star formation activity occurs in a dust-free environment indicated by a strong upper limit of infrared luminosity ≲9 × 108L. Targeting this strongly lensed faint galaxy for follow-up Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and JWST observations will be crucial to characterize the details of typical galaxy growth in the early Universe.

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  4. Abstract

    We present near-infrared (NIR) ground-basedY,J,H, andKimaging obtained in the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) North Ecliptic Pole Time Domain Field (NEP TDF) using the MMT-Magellan Infrared Imager and Spectrometer on the MMT. These new observations cover a field of approximately 230 arcmin2inY,H, andK,and 313 arcmin2inJ. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we estimate a 1σdepth relative to the background sky of (Y, J, H, K) = (23.80, 23.53, 23.13, 23.28) in AB magnitudes for point sources at a 95% completeness level. These observations are part of the ground-based effort to characterize this region of the sky, supplementing space-based data obtained with Chandra, NuSTAR, XMM, AstroSat, Hubble Space Telescope, and JWST. This paper describes the observations and reduction of the NIR imaging and combines these NIR data with archival imaging in the visible, obtained with the Subaru Hyper-Suprime-Cam, to produce a merged catalog of 57,501 sources. The new observations reported here, plus the corresponding multiwavelength catalog, will provide a baseline for time-domain studies of bright sources in the NEP TDF.

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  5. Abstract

    We report the discovery of four galaxy candidates observed 450–600 Myr after the Big Bang with photometric redshifts betweenz∼ 8.3 and 10.2 measured using James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) NIRCam imaging of the galaxy cluster WHL0137−08 observed in eight filters spanning 0.8–5.0μm, plus nine Hubble Space Telescope filters spanning 0.4–1.7μm. One candidate is gravitationally lensed with a magnification ofμ∼ 8, while the other three are located in a nearby NIRCam module with expected magnifications ofμ≲ 1.1. Using SED fitting, we estimate the stellar masses of these galaxies are typically in the rangelogM/M= 8.3–8.7. All appear young, with mass-weighted ages <240 Myr, low dust contentAV< 0.15 mag, and specific star formation rates sSFR ∼0.25–10 Gyr−1for most. Onez∼ 9 candidate is consistent with an age <5 Myr and an sSFR ∼10 Gyr−1, as inferred from a strong F444W excess, implying [Oiii]+Hβrest-frame equivalent width ∼2000 Å, although an olderz∼ 10 object is also allowed. Anotherz∼ 9 candidate is lensed into an arc 2.″4 long with a magnification ofμ∼ 8. This arc is the most spatially resolved galaxy atz∼ 9 known to date, revealing structures ∼30 pc across. Follow-up spectroscopy of WHL0137−08 with JWST/NIRSpec will be useful to spectroscopically confirm these high-redshift galaxy candidates and to study their physical properties in more detail.

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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 15, 2024
  7. Abstract

    We derive the spatial and wavelength behavior of dust attenuation in the multiple-armed spiral galaxy VV 191b using backlighting by the superimposed elliptical system VV 191a in a pair with an exceptionally favorable geometry for this measurement. Imaging using the James Webb Space Telescope and Hubble Space Telescope spans the wavelength range 0.3–4.5μm with high angular resolution, tracing the dust in detail from 0.6–1.5μm. Distinct dust lanes continue well beyond the bright spiral arms, and trace a complex web, with a very sharp radial cutoff near 1.7 Petrosian radii. We present attenuation profiles and coverage statistics in each band at radii 14–21 kpc. We derive the attenuation law with wavelength; the data both within and between the dust lanes clearly favor a stronger reddening behavior (R=AV/EBV≈ 2.0 between 0.6 and 0.9μm, approaching unity by 1.5μm) than found for starbursts and star-forming regions of galaxies. Power-law extinction behavior ∝λβgivesβ= 2.1 from 0.6–0.9μm.Rdecreases at increasing wavelengths (R≈ 1.1 between 0.9 and 1.5μm), whileβsteepens to 2.5. Mixing regions of different column density flattens the wavelength behavior, so these results suggest a different grain population than in our vicinity. The NIRCam images reveal a lens arc and counterimage from a background galaxy atz≈ 1, spanning 90° azimuthally at 2.″8 from the foreground elliptical-galaxy nucleus, and an additional weakly lensed galaxy. The lens model and imaging data give a mass/light ratioM/LB= 7.6 in solar units within the Einstein radius 2.0 kpc.

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  8. Abstract

    The low metallicities of dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrr) greatly influence the formation and structure of molecular clouds. These clouds, which consist primarily of H2, are typically traced by CO, but low-metallicity galaxies are found to have little CO despite ongoing star formation. In order to probe the conditions necessary for CO core formation in dwarf galaxies, we have used the catalog of Rubio et al. for CO cores in WLM, a Local Group dwarf with an oxygen abundance that is 13% of solar. Here we aim to characterize the galactic environments in which these 57 CO cores formed. We grouped the cores together based on proximity to each other and strong FUV emission, examining properties of the star-forming region enveloping the cores and the surrounding environment where the cores formed. We find that high Hisurface density does not necessarily correspond to higher total CO mass, but regions with higher CO mass have higher Hisurface densities. We also find the cores in star-forming regions spanning a wide range of ages show no correlation between age and CO core mass, suggesting that the small size of the cores is not due to fragmentation of the clouds with age. The presence of CO cores in a variety of different local environments, along with the similar properties between star-forming regions with and without CO cores, leads us to conclude that there are no obvious environmental characteristics that drive the formation of these CO cores.

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  9. Abstract

    The Time Domain Field (TDF) near the North Ecliptic Pole in JWST’s continuous-viewing zone will become a premier “blank field” for extragalactic science. JWST/NIRCam data in a 16 arcmin2portion of the TDF identify 4.4μm counterparts for 62 of 63 3 GHz sources withS(3 GHz) > 5μJy. The one unidentified radio source may be a lobe of a nearby Seyfert galaxy, or it may be an infrared-faint radio source. The bulk properties of the radio-host galaxies are consistent with those found by previous work: redshifts range from 0.14–4.4 with a median redshift of 1.33. The radio emission arises primarily from star formation in ∼2/3 of the sample and from an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in ∼1/3, but just over half the sample shows evidence for an AGN either in the spectral energy distribution or by radio excess. All but three counterparts are brighter than magnitude 23 AB at 4.4μm, and the exquisite resolution of JWST identifies correct counterparts for sources for which observations with lower angular resolution would misidentify a nearby bright source as the counterpart when the correct one is faint and red. Up to 11% of counterparts might have been unidentified or misidentified absent NIRCam observations.

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  10. Abstract

    We report the discovery of an extremely magnified star at redshiftz= 2.65 in the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) NIRISS pre-imaging of the A2744 galaxy-cluster field. The star’s background host galaxy lies on a fold caustic of the foreground lens, and the cluster creates a pair of images of the region close to the lensed star. We identified the bright transient in one of the merging images at a distance of ∼0.″15 from the critical curve by subtracting the JWST F115W and F150W imaging from coadditions of archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) F105W and F125W images and F140W and F160W images, respectively. Since the time delay between the two images should be only hours, the transient must be the microlensing event of an individual star, as opposed to a luminous stellar explosion that would persist for days to months. Analysis of individual exposures suggests that the star’s magnification is not changing rapidly during the observations. From photometry of the point source through the F115W, F150W, and F200W filters, we identify a strong Balmer break, and modeling allows us to constrain the star’s temperature to be approximately 7000–12,000 K.

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