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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 6, 2024
  2. null (Ed.)
    Methacrolein oxide (MACR-oxide) is a four-carbon, resonance-stabilized Criegee intermediate produced from isoprene ozonolysis, yet its reactivity is not well understood. This study identifies the functionalized hydroperoxide species, 1-hydroperoxy-2-methylallyl formate (HPMAF), generated from the reaction of MACR-oxide with formic acid using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS, 298 K = 25 °C, 10 torr = 13.3 hPa). Electronic structure calculations indicate the reaction proceeds via an energetically favorable 1,4-addition mechanism. The formation of HPMAF is observed by the rapid appearance of a fragment ion at m/z 99, consistent with the proposed mechanism and characteristic loss of HO2 upon photoionization of functional hydroperoxides. The identification of HPMAF is confirmed by comparison of the appearance energy of the fragment ion with theoretical predictions of its photoionization threshold. The results are compared to analogous studies on the reaction of formic acid with methyl vinyl ketone oxide (MVK-oxide), the other four-carbon Criegee intermediate in isoprene ozonolysis. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Isoprene is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted into the Earth's atmosphere. Ozonolysis is an important atmospheric sink for isoprene, which generates reactive carbonyl oxide species (R 1 R 2 CO + O − ) known as Criegee intermediates. This study focuses on characterizing the catalyzed isomerization and adduct formation pathways for the reaction between formic acid and methyl vinyl ketone oxide (MVK-oxide), a four-carbon unsaturated Criegee intermediate generated from isoprene ozonolysis. syn -MVK-oxide undergoes intramolecular 1,4 H-atom transfer to form a substituted vinyl hydroperoxide intermediate, 2-hydroperoxybuta-1,3-diene (HPBD), which subsequently decomposes to hydroxyl and vinoxylic radical products. Here, we report direct observation of HPBD generated by formic acid catalyzed isomerization of MVK-oxide under thermal conditions (298 K, 10 torr) using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry. The acid catalyzed isomerization of MVK-oxide proceeds by a double hydrogen-bonded interaction followed by a concerted H-atom transfer via submerged barriers to produce HPBD and regenerate formic acid. The analogous isomerization pathway catalyzed with deuterated formic acid (D 2 -formic acid) enables migration of a D atom to yield partially deuterated HPBD (DPBD), which is identified by its distinct mass ( m / z 87) and photoionization threshold. In addition, bimolecular reaction of MVK-oxide with D 2 -formic acid forms a functionalized hydroperoxide adduct, which is the dominant product channel, and is compared to a previous bimolecular reaction study with normal formic acid. Complementary high-level theoretical calculations are performed to further investigate the reaction pathways and kinetics. 
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  4. Isoprene has the highest emission into Earth’s atmosphere of any nonmethane hydrocarbon. Atmospheric processing of alkenes, including isoprene, via ozonolysis leads to the formation of zwitterionic reactive intermediates, known as Criegee intermediates (CIs). Direct studies have revealed that reactions involving simple CIs can significantly impact the tropospheric oxidizing capacity, enhance particulate formation, and degrade local air quality. Methyl vinyl ketone oxide (MVK-oxide) is a four-carbon, asymmetric, resonance-stabilized CI, produced with 21 to 23% yield from isoprene ozonolysis, yet its reactivity has not been directly studied. We present direct kinetic measurements of MVK-oxide reactions with key atmospheric species using absorption spectroscopy. Direct UV-Vis absorption spectra from two independent flow cell experiments overlap with the molecular beam UV-Vis-depletion spectra reported recently [M. F. Vansco, B. Marchetti, M. I. Lester,J. Chem. Phys.149, 44309 (2018)] but suggest different conformer distributions under jet-cooled and thermal conditions. Comparison of the experimental lifetime herein with theory indicates only thesyn-conformers are observed;anti-conformers are calculated to be removed much more rapidly via unimolecular decay. We observe experimentally and predict theoretically fast reaction ofsyn-MVK-oxide with SO2and formic acid, similar to smaller alkyl-substituted CIs, and by contrast, slow removal in the presence of water. We determine products through complementary multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry, observing SO3and identifying organic hydroperoxide formation from reaction with SO2and formic acid, respectively. The tropospheric implications of these reactions are evaluated using a global chemistry and transport model.

     
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