The time-dependent corrosion behavior of pure aluminum (Al) in a chloride-containing environment was investigated using various electrochemical and characterization techniques for up to 336 h. Transmission electron microscopic and secondary ion mass spectroscopic analysis revealed the continuous dissolution of the surface film over the immersion time. In the meantime, the increasing passive oxide thickness resulted in the surface film resistance enhancement over the immersion time, as indicated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis. The electrochemical noise measurements showed an increase in the corrosion kinetics with immersion time until 60 h because of the accelerated localized corrosion in the early stage of immersion. However, an inhibition in corrosion kinetics occurred after longer immersion times due to corrosion product deposition inside the pit.
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Nanocrystalline supersaturated Al-V alloys produced by high-energy ball milling have been reported to exhibit enhanced corrosion resistance and mechanical properties compared to commercial Al alloys. Corrosion of passive alloys such as Al-V alloy relies on the characteristics of the surface film, which is studied using scanning/transmission electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The effect of microstructure and composition on the surface film has been investigated after different immersion periods (30 min, 2 h, and 1 day) in 0.1 M NaCl. The surface film was complex and composed of oxidized Al and V. The heterogeneous surface film was observed due to the presence of secondary phases and initiation of localized corrosion. The void formation was observed beneath the surface film that would potentially cause pitting corrosion. The generation of nano-sized voids was dependent on grain orientation. Compared to pure Al, the chloride penetration is suppressed in Al-V alloys. The effect of composition and microstructure on surface film formation and attendant corrosion behavior is discussed herein.
Supersaturated solid solutions of Al and corrosion-resistant alloying elements (M: V, Mo, Cr, Ti, Nb), produced by non-equilibrium processing techniques, have been reported to exhibit high corrosion resistance and strength. The corrosion mechanism for such improved corrosion performance has not been well understood. We present a fundamental understanding of the role of V in corrosion of an Al-V alloy, which will provide a theoretical background for developing corrosion-resistant Al alloys. High-energy ball milling of the elemental powder of Al and V produced an in situ consolidated Al-V alloy, which exhibited high solid solubility of V. The corrosion resistance of Al-V alloy was significantly higher than that of pure Al, which was attributed to the (1) enrichment of V at the passive film/substrate interface, (2) incorporation of V into the passive film, and (3) deposition of V on the iron-containing cathodic particles and therefore, retardation of cathodic reaction.