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  1. We present the design, fabrication, and measured performance of metamaterial antireflection cuttings (ARCs) for large-format alumina filters operating over more than an octave of bandwidth to be deployed at the Simons Observatory (SO). The ARC consists of subwavelength features diced into the optic’s surface using a custom dicing saw with near-micrometer accuracy. The designs achieve percent-level control over reflections at angles of incidence up to20∘<#comment/>. The ARCs were demonstrated on four 42 cm diameter filters covering the 75 to 170 GHz band and a 50 mm diameter prototype covering the 200 to 300 GHz band. The reflection and transmission of these samples were measured using a broadband coherent source that covers frequencies from 20 GHz to 1.2 THz. These measurements demonstrate percent-level control over reflectance across the targeted pass-bands and a rapid reduction in transmission as the wavelength approaches the length scale of the metamaterial structure where scattering dominates the optical response. The latter behavior enables use of the metamaterial ARC as a scattering filter in this limit.

    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 11, 2023
  2. Zmuidzinas, Jonas ; Gao, Jian-Rong (Ed.)
    Polarization modulation is a powerful technique to increase the stability of measurements by enabling the distinction of a polarized signal from dominant slow system drifts and unpolarized foregrounds. Furthermore, when placed as close to the sky as possible, modulation can reduce systematic errors from instrument polarization. In this work, we introduce the design and preliminary drive system laboratory performance of a new 60 cm diameter reflective half-wave plate (RHWP) polarization modulator. The wave plate consists of a wire array situated in front of a flat mirror. Using 50 μm diameter wires with 175 μm spacing, the wave plate will be suitable for operation in the millimeter wavelength range with flatness of the wires and parallelism to the mirror held to a small fraction of a wavelength. The presented design targets the 77-108 GHz range. Modulation is performed by a rotation of the wave plate with a custom rotary drive utilizing an actively controlled servo motor.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 31, 2023
  3. We present near-field radio holography measurements of the Simons Observatory Large Aperture Telescope Receiver optics. These measurements demonstrate that radio holography of complex millimeter-wave optical systems comprising cryogenic lenses, filters, and feed horns can provide detailed characterization of wave propagation before deployment. We used the measured amplitude and phase, at 4 K, of the receiver near-field beam pattern to predict two key performance parameters: 1) the amount of scattered light that will spill past the telescope to 300 K and 2) the beam pattern expected from the receiver when fielded on the telescope. These cryogenic measurements informed the removal of a filter, which led to improved optical efficiency and reduced sidelobes at the exit of the receiver. Holography measurements of this system suggest that the spilled power past the telescope mirrors will be less than 1%, and the main beam with its near sidelobes are consistent with the nominal telescope design. This is the first time such parameters have been confirmed in the lab prior to deployment of a new receiver. This approach is broadly applicable to millimeter and submillimeter instruments.

    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Zmuidzinas, Jonas ; Gao, Jian-Rong (Ed.)
    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) telescope array surveys 75% of the sky from the Atacama desert in Chile at frequency bands centered near 40, 90, 150, and 220 GHz. CLASS measures the largest-angular scale (θ ≳ 1 ° ) CMB polarization with the aim of constraining the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, measuring the optical depth to reionization, τ , to near the cosmic variance limit, and more. The CLASS Q-band (40 GHz), W-band (90 GHz), and dichroic high frequency (150/220 GHz) telescopes have been observing since June 2016, May 2018, and September 2019, respectively. On-sky optical characterization of the 40 GHz instrument has been published. Here, we present preliminary on-sky measurements of the beams at 90, 150, and 220 GHz, and pointing stability of the 90 and 150/220 GHz telescopes. The average 90, 150, and 220 GHz beams measured from dedicated observations of Jupiter have full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 0.615±0.019° , 0.378±0.005° , and 0.266 ± 0.008° , respectively. Telescope pointing variations are within a few % of the beam FWHM.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 31, 2023
  5. Zmuidzinas, Jonas ; Gao, Jian-Rong (Ed.)
    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a polarization-sensitive telescope array located at an altitude of 5,200 m in the Chilean Atacama Desert. CLASS is designed to measure "E-mode" (even parity) and "B-mode" (odd parity) polarization patterns in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) over large angular scales with the aim of improving our understanding of inflation, reionization, and dark matter. CLASS is currently observing with three telescopes covering four frequency bands: one at 40 GHz (Q); one at 90 GHz (W1); and one dichroic system at 150/220 GHz (G). In these proceedings, we discuss the updated design and in-lab characterization of new 90 GHz detectors. The new detectors include design changes to the transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometer architecture, which aim to improve stability and optical efficiency. We assembled and tested four new detector wafers, to replace four modules of the W1 focal plane. These detectors were installed into the W1 telescope, and will achieve first light in the austral winter of 2022. We present electrothermal parameters and bandpass measurements from in-lab dark and optical testing. From in-lab dark tests, we also measure a median NEP of 12.3 aW√ s across all four wafers about the CLASS signal band, whichmore »is below the expected photon NEP of 32 aW√ s from the field. We therefore expect the new detectors to be photon noise limited.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 31, 2023
  6. ABSTRACT

    We measure the local correlation between radio emission and Compton-y signal across two galaxy clusters, Abell 399 and Abell 401, using maps from the Low Frequency Array and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope  + Planck. These data sets allow us to make the first measurement of this kind at ∼arcmin resolution. We find that the radio brightness scales as Fradio ∝ y1.5 for Abell 401 and Fradio ∝ y2.8 for Abell 399. Furthermore, using XMM–Newton data, we derive a sublinear correlation between radio and X-ray brightness for both the clusters ($F_{\mathrm{radio}} \propto F_{\rm X}^{0.7}$). Finally, we correlate the Compton-y and X-ray data, finding that an isothermal model is consistent with the cluster profiles, $y \propto F_{\rm X}^{0.5}$. By adopting an isothermal–β model, we are able, for the first time, to jointly use radio, X-ray, and Compton-y data to estimate the scaling index for the magnetic field profile, B(r) ∝ ne(r)η in the injection and re-acceleration scenarios. Applying this model, we find that the combined radio and Compton-y signal exhibits a significantly tighter correlation with the X-ray across the clusters than when the data sets are independently correlated. We find η ∼ 0.6–0.8. These results are consistent with the upper limit we derive for the scaling index of the magnetic field usingmore »rotation measure values for two radio galaxies in Abell 401. We also measure the radio, Compton-y, and X-ray correlations in the filament between the clusters but conclude that deeper data are required for a convincing determination of the correlations in the filament.

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  7. Abstract We describe the measurement and treatment of the telescope beams for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope's fourth data release, DR4. Observations of Uranus are used to measure the central portion (<12 ' ) of the beams to roughly -40 dB of the peak. Such planet maps in intensity are used to construct azimuthally averaged beam profiles, which are fit with a physically motivated model before being transformed into Fourier space. We investigate and quantify a number of percent-level corrections to the beams, all of which are important for precision cosmology. Uranus maps in polarization are used to measure the temperature-to-polarization leakage in the main part of the beams, which is ≲ 1% (2.5%) at 150 GHz (98 GHz). The beams also have polarized sidelobes, which are measured with observations of Saturn and deprojected from the ACT time-ordered data. Notable changes relative to past ACT beam analyses include an improved subtraction of the atmospheric effects from Uranus calibration maps, incorporation of a scattering term in the beam profile model, and refinements to the beam model uncertainties and the main temperature-to-polarization leakage terms in the ACT power spectrum analysis.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  8. Near-field radio holography is a common method for measuring and aligning mirror surfaces for millimeter and sub-millimeter telescopes. In instruments with more than a single mirror, degeneracies arise in the holography measurement, requiring multiple measurements and new fitting methods. We present HoloSim-ML, a Python code for beam simulation and analysis of radio holography data from complex optical systems. This code uses machine learning to efficiently determine the position of hundreds of mirror adjusters on multiple mirrors with few micrometer accuracy. We apply this approach to the example of the Simons Observatory 6 m telescope.

  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023