skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Wong, Chee Wei"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract

    Deterministic positioning single site-controlled high symmetric InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) in (111)B-oriented GaAs photonic crystal cavities with nanometer-scale accuracy provides an idea component for building integrated quantum photonic circuits. However, it has been a long-standing challenge of improving cavityQ-factors in such systems. Here, by optimizing the trade-off between the cavity loss and QD spectral quality, we demonstrate our site-controlled QD-nanocavity system operating in the intermediate coupling regime mediated by phonon scattering, with the dynamic coexistence of strong and weak coupling. The cavity-exciton detuning-dependent micro-photoluminescence spectrum reveals concurrence of a trend of exciton-polariton mode avoided crossing, as a signature of Rabi doublet of the strongly coupled system. Meanwhile, a trend of keeping constant or slight blue shift of coupled exciton–cavity mode(CM) energy across zero-detuning is ascribed to the formation of collective states mediated by phonon-assisted coupling, and their rare partial out-of-synchronization linewidth-narrowing is linked to their coexisting strong-weak coupling regime. We further reveal the pump power-dependent anti-bunching photon statistical dynamics of this coexisting strong-weak coupled system and the optical features of strongly confined exciton-polaritons, and dark-exciton-like states. These observations demonstrate the potential capabilities of site-controlled QD-cavity systems as deterministic quantum nodes for on-chip quantum information processing and provide guidelines formore »future device optimization for achieving the strong coupling regime.

    « less
  2. Abstract Augmented reality (AR) devices, as smart glasses, enable users to see both the real world and virtual images simultaneously, contributing to an immersive experience in interactions and visualization. Recently, to reduce the size and weight of smart glasses, waveguides incorporating holographic optical elements in the form of advanced grating structures have been utilized to provide light-weight solutions instead of bulky helmet-type headsets. However current waveguide displays often have limited display resolution, efficiency and field-of-view, with complex multi-step fabrication processes of lower yield. In addition, current AR displays often have vergence-accommodation conflict in the augmented and virtual images, resulting in focusing-visual fatigue and eye strain. Here we report metasurface optical elements designed and experimentally implemented as a platform solution to overcome these limitations. Through careful dispersion control in the excited propagation and diffraction modes, we design and implement our high-resolution full-color prototype, via the combination of analytical–numerical simulations, nanofabrication and device measurements. With the metasurface control of the light propagation, our prototype device achieves a 1080-pixel resolution, a field-of-view more than 40°, an overall input–output efficiency more than 1%, and addresses the vergence-accommodation conflict through our focal-free implementation. Furthermore, our AR waveguide is achieved in a single metasurface-waveguide layer, aidingmore »the scalability and process yield control.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. Abstract

    High-spectral-purity frequency-agile room-temperature sources in the terahertz spectrum are foundational elements for imaging, sensing, metrology, and communications. Here we present a chip-scale optical parametric oscillator based on an integrated nonlinear microresonator that provides broadly tunable single-frequency and multi-frequency oscillators in the terahertz regime. Through optical-to-terahertz down-conversion using a plasmonic nanoantenna array, coherent terahertz radiation spanning 2.8-octaves is achieved from 330 GHz to 2.3 THz, with ≈20 GHz cavity-mode-limited frequency tuning step and ≈10 MHz intracavity-mode continuous frequency tuning range at each step. By controlling the microresonator intracavity power and pump-resonance detuning, tunable multi-frequency terahertz oscillators are also realized. Furthermore, by stabilizing the microresonator pump power and wavelength, sub-100 Hz linewidth of the terahertz radiation with 10−15residual frequency instability is demonstrated. The room-temperature generation of both single-frequency, frequency-agile terahertz radiation and multi-frequency terahertz oscillators in the chip-scale platform offers unique capabilities in metrology, sensing, imaging and communications.

  4. Dissipative Kerr soliton generation in chip-scale nonlinear resonators has recently observed remarkable advances, spanning from massively parallel communications, to self-referenced oscillators, and to dual-comb spectroscopy. Often working in the anomalous dispersion regime, unique driving protocols and dispersion in these nonlinear resonators have been examined to achieve the soliton and soliton-like temporal pulse shapes and coherent frequency comb generation. The normal dispersion regime provides a complementary approach to bridge the nonlinear dynamical studies, including the possibility of square pulse formation with flattop plateaus, or platicons. Here we report observations of square pulse formation in chip-scale frequency combs through stimulated pumping at one free spectral range and in silicon nitride rings with+55  fs2/mmnormal group velocity dispersion. Tuning of the platicon frequency comb via a varied sideband modulation frequency is examined in both spectral and temporal measurements. Determined by second-harmonic autocorrelation and cross correlation, we observe bright square platicon pulse of 17 ps pulse width on a 19 GHz flat frequency comb. With auxiliary-laser-assisted thermal stabilization, we surpass the thermal bistable dragging and extend the mode-locking access to narrower 2 ps platicon pulse states, supported by nonlinear dynamical modeling and boundary limit discussions.

  5. Tracing a resonance frequency of a high quality factor (Q) optical cavity facilitates subpicometer displacement measurements of the optical cavity via Pound–Drever–Hall (PDH) locking scheme, tightly synchronizing a laser frequency to the optical cavity. Here we present observations of subfemtometer displacements on a ultrahigh-Qsingle-crystalMgF2whispering-gallery-mode microcavity by frequency synchronization between a 1 Hz cavity-stabilized laser and a resonance of theMgF2cavity using PDH laser-cavity locking. We characterize not only the displacement spectral density of the microcavity with a sensitivity of1.5×1016  m/Hz1/2over the Fourier offset frequency ranging from 15 mHz to 100 kHz but also a 1.77 nm displacement fluctuation of the microcavity over 4500 s. Such measurement capability not only supports the analysis of integrated thermodynamical and technical cavity noise but allows for minute displacement measurements using laser-cavity locking for ultraprecise positioning, metrology, and sensing.

  6. Abstract Strongly correlated polaritons in Jaynes–Cummings (JC) lattices can exhibit quantum phase transitions between the Mott-insulating and superfluid phases at integer fillings. The prerequisite to observe such phase transitions is to pump polariton excitations into a JC lattice and prepare them into appropriate ground states. Despite previous efforts, it is still challenging to generate many-body states with high accuracy. Here, we present an approach for the robust preparation of many-body ground states of polaritons in finite-sized JC lattices by optimized nonlinear ramping. We apply a Landau–Zener type of estimation to this finite-sized system and derive the optimal ramping index for selected ramping trajectories, which can greatly improve the fidelity of the prepared states. With numerical simulation, we show that by choosing an appropriate ramping trajectory, the fidelity in this approach can remain close to unity in almost the entire parameter space. This approach can shed light on high-fidelity state preparation in quantum simulators and advance the implementation of quantum simulation with practical devices.
  7. Abstract

    Mid-infrared free-space optical communication has a large potential for high speed communication due to its immunity to electromagnetic interference. However, data security against eavesdroppers is among the obstacles for private free-space communication. Here, we show that two uni-directionally coupled quantum cascade lasers operating in the chaotic regime and the synchronization between them allow for the extraction of the information that has been camouflaged in the chaotic emission. This building block represents a key tool to implement a high degree of privacy directly on the physical layer. We realize a proof-of-concept communication at a wavelength of 5.7 μm with a message encryption at a bit rate of 0.5 Mbit/s. Our demonstration of private free-space communication between a transmitter and receiver opens strategies for physical encryption and decryption of a digital message.

  8. Abstract

    Qudit entanglement is an indispensable resource for quantum information processing since increasing dimensionality provides a pathway to higher capacity and increased noise resilience in quantum communications, and cluster-state quantum computations. In continuous-variable time–frequency entanglement, encoding multiple qubits per photon is only limited by the frequency correlation bandwidth and detection timing jitter. Here, we focus on the discrete-variable time–frequency entanglement in a biphoton frequency comb (BFC), generating by filtering the signal and idler outputs with a fiber Fabry–Pérot cavity with 45.32 GHz free-spectral range (FSR) and 1.56 GHz full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) from a continuous-wave (cw)-pumped type-II spontaneous parametric downconverter (SPDC). We generate a BFC whose time-binned/frequency-binned Hilbert space dimensionality is at least 324, based on the assumption of a pure state. Such BFC’s dimensionality doubles up to 648, after combining with its post-selected polarization entanglement, indicating a potential 6.28 bits/photon classical-information capacity. The BFC exhibits recurring Hong–Ou–Mandel (HOM) dips over 61 time bins with a maximum visibility of 98.4% without correction for accidental coincidences. In a post-selected measurement, it violates the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality for polarization entanglement by up to 18.5 standard deviations with anS-parameter of up to 2.771. It has Franson interference recurrences in 16 time bins with a maximum visibility of 96.1%more »without correction for accidental coincidences. From the zeroth- to the third-order Franson interference, we infer an entanglement of formation (Eof) up to 1.89 ± 0.03 ebits—where 2 ebits is the maximal entanglement for a 4 × 4 dimensional biphoton—as a lower bound on the 61 time-bin BFC’s high-dimensional entanglement. To further characterize time-binned/frequency-binned BFCs we obtain Schmidt mode decompositions of BFCs generated using cavities with 45.32, 15.15, and 5.03 GHz FSRs. These decompositions confirm the time–frequency scaling from Fourier-transform duality. Moreover, we present the theory of conjugate Franson interferometry—because it is characterized by the state’s joint-temporal intensity (JTI)—which can further help to distinguish between pure-state BFC and mixed state entangled frequency pairs, although the experimental implementation is challenging and not yet available. In summary, our BFC serves as a platform for high-dimensional quantum information processing and high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD).

    « less
  9. Abstract

    Femtosecond mode-locked laser frequency combs have served as the cornerstone in precision spectroscopy, all-optical atomic clocks, and measurements of ultrafast dynamics. Recently frequency microcombs based on nonlinear microresonators have been examined, exhibiting remarkable precision approaching that of laser frequency combs, on a solid-state chip-scale platform and from a fundamentally different physical origin. Despite recent successes, to date, the real-time dynamical origins and high-power stabilities of such frequency microcombs have not been fully addressed. Here, we unravel the transitional dynamics of frequency microcombs from chaotic background routes to femtosecond mode-locking in real time, enabled by our ultrafast temporal magnifier metrology and improved stability of dispersion-managed dissipative solitons. Through our dispersion-managed oscillator, we further report a stability zone that is more than an order-of-magnitude larger than its prior static homogeneous counterparts, providing a novel platform for understanding ultrafast dissipative dynamics and offering a new path towards high-power frequency microcombs.