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Creators/Authors contains: "Woodworth, Timothy S."

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  1. Abstract

    The field of quantum metrology seeks to apply quantum techniques and/or resources to classical sensing approaches with the goal of enhancing the precision in the estimation of a parameter beyond what can be achieved with classical resources. Theoretically, the fundamental minimum uncertainty in the estimation of a parameter for a given probing state is bounded by the quantum Cramér-Rao bound. From a practical perspective, it is necessary to find physical measurements that can saturate this fundamental limit and to show experimentally that it is possible to perform measurements with the required precision to do so. Here we perform experiments that saturate the quantum Cramér-Rao bound for transmission estimation over a wide range of transmissions when probing the system under study with a continuous wave bright two-mode squeezed state. To properly take into account the imperfections in the generation of the quantum state, we extend our previous theoretical results to incorporate the measured properties of the generated quantum state. For our largest transmission level of 84%, we show a 62% reduction over the optimal classical protocol in the variance in transmission estimation when probing with a bright two-mode squeezed state with −8 dB of intensity-difference squeezing. Given that transmission estimation is an integral part of many sensing protocols, such as plasmonic sensing, spectroscopy, calibration of the quantum efficiency of detectors, etc., the results presented promise to have a significant impact on a number of applications in various fields of research.

     
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  3. Quantum states of light can enable sensing configurations with sensitivities beyond the shot-noise limit (SNL). In order to better take advantage of available quantum resources and obtain the maximum possible sensitivity, it is necessary to determine fundamental sensitivity limits for different possible configurations for a given sensing system. Here, due to their wide applicability, we focus on optical resonance sensors, which detect a change in a parameter of interest through a resonance shift. We compare their fundamental sensitivity limits set by the quantum Cramér-Rao bound (QCRB) based on the estimation of changes in transmission or phase of a probing bright two-mode squeezed state (bTMSS) of light. We show that the fundamental sensitivity results from an interplay between the QCRB and the transfer function of the system. As a result, for a resonance sensor with a Lorentzian lineshape a phase-based scheme outperforms a transmission-based one for most of the parameter space; however, this is not the case for lineshapes with steeper slopes, such as higher order Butterworth lineshapes. Furthermore, such an interplay results in conditions under which the phase-based scheme provides a higher sensitivity but a smaller degree of quantum enhancement than the transmission-based scheme. We also study the effect of losses external to the sensor on the degree of quantum enhancement and show that for certain conditions, probing with a classical state can provide a higher sensitivity than probing with a bTMSS. Finally, we discuss detection schemes, namely optimized intensity-difference and optimized homodyne detection, that can achieve the fundamental sensitivity limits even in the presence of external losses. 
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