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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. null (Ed.)
  3. Abstract. The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is asynthesis effort providing regular compilations of surface-to-bottom oceanbiogeochemical data, with an emphasis on seawater inorganic carbon chemistryand related variables determined through chemical analysis of seawatersamples. GLODAPv2.2020 is an update of the previous version, GLODAPv2.2019.The major changes are data from 106 new cruises added, extension of timecoverage to 2019, and the inclusion of available (also for historicalcruises) discrete fugacity of CO2 (fCO2) values in the mergedproduct files. GLODAPv2.2020 now includes measurements from more than 1.2 million water samples from the global oceans collected on 946 cruises. Thedata for the 12 GLODAP core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate,phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12,CFC-113, and CCl4) have undergone extensive quality control with afocus on systematic evaluation of bias. The data are available in twoformats: (i) as submitted by the data originator but updated to WOCEexchange format and (ii) as a merged data product with adjustments appliedto minimize bias. These adjustments were derived by comparing the data fromthe 106 new cruises with the data from the 840 quality-controlled cruises ofthe GLODAPv2.2019 data product using crossover analysis. Comparisons toempirical algorithm estimates provided additional context for adjustmentdecisions; this is new to this version. The adjustments are intendedmore »toremove potential biases from errors related to measurement, calibration, anddata-handling practices without removing known or likely time trends orvariations in the variables evaluated. The compiled and adjusted dataproduct is believed to be consistent to better than 0.005 in salinity, 1 % in oxygen, 2 % in nitrate, 2 % in silicate, 2 % in phosphate,4 µmol kg−1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 4 µmol kg−1in total alkalinity, 0.01–0.02 in pH (depending on region), and 5 % inthe halogenated transient tracers. The other variables included in thecompilation, such as isotopic tracers and discrete fCO2, were notsubjected to bias comparison or adjustments. The original data and their documentation and DOI codes are available at theOcean Carbon Data System of NOAA NCEI(, lastaccess: 20 June 2020). This site also provides access to the merged dataproduct, which is provided as a single global file and as four regional ones– the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans –under (Olsen et al., 2020). Thesebias-adjusted product files also include significant ancillary andapproximated data. These were obtained by interpolation of, or calculationfrom, measured data. This living data update documents the GLODAPv2.2020methods and provides a broad overview of the secondary quality controlprocedures and results.« less